Table 3 Frequency of Withdrawal Symptoms Experienced by E-cig users During Fasting Time in Ramadan

From: The Era of E-Cigarettes: A Cross-Sectional Study of Vaping Preferences, Reasons for Use and Withdrawal Symptoms Among Current E-Cigarette Users in the United Arab Emirates

                                                                                                             n (%) P value+
Never smoker (n = 95) Former smoker (n = 185) Current smoker (n = 112) Total (n = 392)
Physical symptoms
 Weight gain 2 (0.5) 12 (3.1) 5 (1.3) 19 (4.8) 0.131
 Sweating 4 (1.0) 8 (2.0) 7 (1.8) 19 (4.8) 0.870
 Abdominal cramping 2 (0.5) 9 (2.3) 5 (1.3) 16 (4.1) 0.655
 Tremor 5 (1.3) 9 (2.3) 7 (1.8) 21 (5.4) 0.606
 Breathing difficulty 30 (7.7) 54 (13.8) 26 (6.6) 110 (28.1) 0.589
 Constipation 9 (2.3) 27 (6.9) 23 (5.9) 59 (15.1) 0.202
 Sore or itchy throat 17 (4.3) 43 (11.0) 27 (6.9) 87 (22.2) 0.489
 Heart palpitation 20 (5.1) 35 (8.9) 20 (5.1) 75 (19.1) 0.251
 Dizziness 11 (2.8) 20 (5.1) 16 (4.1) 47 (12.0) 0.645
 Headache 11 (2.8) 20 (5.1) 16 (4.1) 47 (12.0) 0.645
 Nausea 16 (4.1) 43 (11.0) 27 (6.9) 86 (21.9) 0.729
 No symptoms 50 (12.8) 101 (25.8) 60 (15.3) 211 (53.8) 0.049
Physical score
Mean (± SD)
1.34 (± 1.78) 1.51 (± 2.06) 1.60 (± 2.20) 1.48 (± 2.01) 0.199$
Psychological symptoms
 Social isolation 6 (1.5) 10 (2.6) 5 (1.3) 21 (5.3) 0.958
 Depression 6 (1.5) 14 (3.6) 5 (1.3) 25 (6.4) 0.768
 Feeling sleepy 11 (2.8) 40 (10.2) 23 (5.9) 74 (18.8) 0.289
 Poor concentration 17 (4.3) 47 (12.0) 35 (8.9) 99 (25.2) 0.050
 Angry 12 (3.1) 42 (10.7) 24 (6.1) 78 (19.9) 0.166
 Stress 12 (3.1) 42 (10.7) 42 (10.7) 96 (24.5) 0.269
 Restlessness 30 (7.7) 63 (16.1) 42 (10.7) 135 (34.4) 0.709
 Intense cravings for vaping 47 (12.0) 90 (23.0) 61 (15.6) 198 (50.4) 0.335
 No symptoms 51 (13.0) 90 (23.0) 51 (13.0) 192 (49.0) 0.048
Psychological score
Mean (± SD)
1.48 (± 1.92) 1.88 (± 2.35) 1.92 (± 2.24) 1.76 (± 2.16) 0.052$
  1. Participants were able to choose multiple symptoms that applied to their situation (n = 392)
  2. All percentages were calculated based on the total sample (n = 392)
  3. +Chi-square test (significance at P value < 0.05)
  4. $Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare scores between tobacco cigarette smoking groups