Health Behavior Regarding Cardiovascular Diseases Among Nepali Adults
The main aim was to assess Nepali adults’ knowledge, health beliefs, and health promoting behaviors regarding cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). A descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted in five wards of Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitan City. A random sample of 300 Nepali individuals aged 20–65 years completed the heart disease knowledge questionnaire and health beliefs related to cardiovascular diseases. The health belief model related to CVDs was used. Sociodemographic and personal information was collected. Of the adults 45.3% were aged 20–40 years, and 50.7% were male. The male participants smoked and consumed alcohol more than the female participants (p < 0.05). The mean score on the heart disease knowledge questionnaire was 11.8 ± 4.6. Adults between 20 and 40 years age, non smokers, and daily exercisers had greater knowledge on CVDs. The mean score on the four subscales of the health beliefs related to cardiovascular disease scale were as follows: perceived susceptibility (11.5 ± 2.5), perceived severity (12.1 ± 3.5), perceived benefits (20.1 ± 2.9) and perceived barriers (19.4 ± 3.3). Adults performing health promoting activities had better knowledge and greater perceived susceptibility. A simple regression showed knowledge and education were predictors of health promoting activities. Adults who were performing more than two activities for health promotion had better knowledge of CVDs and perceived more susceptibility. Identifying the health needs, understanding cultural beliefs and misconceptions, and adopting health-promoting actions might help to improve the health behavior of Nepali adults.
KeywordsBeliefs Cardiovascular disease Knowledge Adult
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The author declares that there is no conflict of interest.
- 1.World Health Organization. (2016) Cardiovascular diseases. Accessed February 6, 2016, from http://www.wpro.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/cardiovascular_disease/en/.
- 2.World Health Organization. (2016) Cardiovascular diseases. Accessed February 9, 2016 from http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/noncommunicable-diseases/cardiovascular-diseases/cardiovascular-diseases2.
- 3.World Health Organization. (2016) Nepal. Accessed February 9, 2016 from http://www.who.int/nmh/countries/npl_en.pdf?ua=1.
- 4.Dhungana, R. R., Devkota, S., Khanal, M. K., Gurung, Y., Giri, R. K., Parajuli, R. K., Joshi, S., Hada, B., Shayami, A. (2014). Prevalence of cardiovascular health risk behaviors in a remote rural community of Sindhuli district, Nepal. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 14(1), 92. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4115072/. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 5.Chen, W., Yu, Y., & Glaser, K. (2009). The knowledge and attitudes of coronary heart disease prevention among middle and older aged people in a community in Taipei. Taiwan Geriatr Gerontol, 4, 251–262. Retrieved from http://www.tagg.org.tw/down/%C2%F8%BBx/4-4%B4%C1/4-4-5-%AD%EC%B5%DB-%B3%AF%BA%FB%D3%7D-%AD%5E-P251-262.pdf.
- 6.Turner, L. W., Hunt, S. B., Dibrezzo, R. O., & Jones, C. (2004). Design and implementation of an osteoporosis prevention program using the health belief model. American Journal of Health Studies, 19(2), 15. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/210482928?pq-origsite=gscholar.
- 7.Hayden J. (2013) Introduction to Health Behavior Theory. 2nd ed. Jones & Barlett Publishers. Retrieved from http://samples.jbpub.com/9781449689742/FrontMatter.pdf.
- 8.Kelly, J. A. (1999). Behavior changes & disease prevention: MCW research shows effectiveness of HIV/AIDS risk reduction interventions. Medical College of Wisconsin. WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin, 99(1), 41–43. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10752383.
- 9.Willett, W. C., Koplan, J. P., Nugent, R., Dusenbury, C., Puska, P., & Gaziano, T. A. (2006). Prevention of chronic disease by means of diet and lifestyle changes (2nd ed.). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11795/.
- 10.Wasti, S. P (2011). In what way do Nepalese cultural factors affect adherence to antiretroviral treatment in Nepal. Health Science Journal, 5(1), 37–47. http://www.hsj.gr/medicine/in-what-way-do-nepalese-cultural-factors-affect-adherence-to-antiretroviral-treatment-in-nepal.php?aid=3479. Accessed 2 Mar 2017.Google Scholar
- 12.Bergman, H. E., Reeve, B. B., Moser, R. P., Scholl, S., & Klein, W. M. (2011). Development of a comprehensive heart disease knowledge questionnaire. American Journal of Health Education, 42(2), 74–87. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ918449.pdf.
- 14.Kopp, L. R. (2015). Knowledge and attitudes towards cardiovascular disease in a population of North Western Turkey: A cross-sectional survey. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 8(1), 115. Retrieved from http://www.internationaljournalofcaringsciences.org/docs/14-Original-Andsoy.pdf.
- 16.Kolodinsky, J., Harvey-Berino, J. R., Berlin, L., Johnson, R. K., & Reynolds, T. W. (2007). Knowledge of current dietary guidelines and food choice by college students: Better eaters have higher knowledge of dietary guidance. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 107(8), 1409–1413. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2007.05.016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 17.Mukattash, T. L., Shara, M., Jarab, A. S., Al-Azzam, S. I., Almaaytah, A., & Al Hamarneh, Y. N. (2012). Public knowledge and awareness of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors: A cross-sectional study of 1000 Jordanians. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 20(6), 367–376. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-1131.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.Hennekens, C.H. (1998) Risk factors for coronary heart disease in women. Cardiology Clinics, 16(1), 1–8. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9507775.
- 19.Stergiannis, P. (2015). Do greek citizens have minimum knowledge about heart attack? A survey. Health Science Journal, 9(5), 1–5. http://www.hsj.gr/medicine/do-greek-citizens-have-minimum-knowledge-about-heart-attacka-survey.pdf. Accessed 10 Nov 2016.Google Scholar
- 21.Jafary, F. H., Aslam, F., Mahmud, H., Waheed, A., Shakir, M., Afzal, A., ... Haque, I. U. (2005). Cardiovascular health knowledge and behavior in patient attendants at four tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan: A cause for concern. BMC Public Health, 5(1), 124. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-5-124.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 23.Zighaimat, F., Ebadi, A., Karimi-Zarchi, A. A., Moradi, N., Hajiamini, Z., & Mehdizadeh, S. (2010). The effect of education based on health belief model on dietary behavior of coronary artery bypass graft patients. Iran Journal of Nursing, 23(65), 50–60. Retrieved from http://ijn.iums.ac.ir/article-1-825-en.html.
- 24.Lynch, E. B., Liu, K., Kiefe, C. I., & Greenland, P. (2006). Cardiovascular disease risk factor knowledge in young adults and 10-year change in risk factors the coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 164(12), 1171–1179. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwj334.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 25.Homko, C. J., Santamore, W. P., Zamora, L., Shirk, G., Gaughan, J., Cross, R., ... Bove, A. A. (2008). Cardiovascular disease knowledge and risk perception among underserved individuals at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 23(4), 332–337. doi: 10.1097/01.JCN.0000317432.44586.aa.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 26.Baig, M., Gazzaz, Z. J., Gari, M. A., Al-Attallah, H. G., Al-Jedaani, K. S., Mesawa, A. T., & Al-Hazmi, A. A. (2015). Prevalence of obesity and hypertension among University students’ and their knowledge and attitude towards risk factors of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 31(4), 816. doi: 10.12669/pjms.314.7953.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 27.Amarasekara, P., de Silva, A., Swarnamali, H., Senarath, U., & Katulanda, P. (2016). Knowledge, attitudes, and practices on lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors among metabolic syndrome patients in an Urban Tertiary Care Institute in Sri Lanka. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 28(1_suppl), 32S–40S. doi: 10.1177/1010539515612123.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 28.Ebrahimi Porian, L., Salehi, S., Pourmirza Kalhori, R., Abdyazdan, G. H., & Sharifi, A. (2013). Assessing the effect of healthy belief model application on behavior change of the patients with myocardial infarction. Journal of Critical Care Nursing, 6(2), 101–108. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.678.6705&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
- 30.Collins, K. M., Dantico, M., Shearer, N. B., & Mossman, K. L. (2004). Heart disease awareness among college students. Journal of Community Health, 29(5), 405–420. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15471422.