Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and Their Cardiometabolic Comorbidities in Hispanic Adults Living in Puerto Rico
- 334 Downloads
This study characterized the prevalence of overweight and obesity and assessed their cardiometabolic comorbidities in the population aged 21–79 years living in the San Juan metropolitan area of Puerto Rico. We analyzed data from a household survey conducted in Puerto Rico between 2005 and 2007 that used a representative sample of 840 non-institutionalized adults living in the San Juan metropolitan area. Body mass index categories were classified as normal weight, overweight and obese. Poisson regression model with robust variance was used to estimate the prevalence ratio to assess the association of each cardiometabolic comorbidity (hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, prediabetes, systemic inflammation, prothrombotic state, and coronary heart disease) with overweight and obesity. Age-standardized prevalence of overweight and obesity was 35.9 and 41.5 %, respectively, figures higher than the combined prevalence for the U.S. adult population (68.8 %) but similar to all mainland Hispanics (78.8 %). Men were more likely to be overweight than women (40.4 vs. 33.4 %), whereas more women than men were obese (43.7 vs. 37.6 %). Prevalence of all cardiometabolic comorbidities was significantly (p < 0.05) higher among overweight and obese adults than those of normal weight after adjusting for age, sex, years of education, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity. A considerable proportion of adults in this population are overweight or obese. In view of the wide-ranging effects that overweight and obesity have on health, preventive actions to avert the rise of excess body weight as well as the design of lifestyle interventions are largely needed in this population.
KeywordsOverweight Obesity Cardiometabolic comorbidities Hispanics
This work was fully supported by an unrestricted grant from Merck & Co., Inc. and partially supported by award number U54 RR026139 from the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) and the award Number U54 MD 007587 from the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) of the National Institutes of Health. Its contents are solely the responsibility of authors and do not necessarily represent the official view of Merck & Co., Inc. or the National Institutes of Health.
Conflict of interest
The authors have no commercial associations or sources of support that might pose a conflict of interest.
- 1.Finucane, M. M., Stevens, G. A., Cowan, M. J., Danaei, G., Lin, J. K., Paciorek, C. J., et al. (2011). National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: Systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9.1 million participants. Lancet, 377, 557–567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 3.Expert Panel on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight in Adults. (1998). Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: Executive summary. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 68, 899–917.Google Scholar
- 4.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). The Surgeon General’s call to action to prevent and decrease overweight and obesity. [Rockville, MD]: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General. Available from: U.S. GPO, Washington.Google Scholar
- 7.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Healthy People 2020. Washington, DC. Available at http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/default.aspx. Accessed May 1, 2013.
- 8.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2004). Health disparities experienced by Hispanics—United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 53, 935–937.Google Scholar
- 9.Daviglus, M. L., Talavera, G. A., Avilés-Santa, M. L., Allison, M., Cai, J., Criqui, M. H., et al. (2012). Prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases among Hispanic/Latino individuals of diverse backgrounds in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 308, 1775–1784.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2008). Behavioral risk factor surveillance system survey data. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
- 12.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2008). State-specific incidence of diabetes among adults—participating states, 1995–1997 and 2005–2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 57, 1169–1173.Google Scholar
- 13.Hughes, E., Kilmer, G., Li, Y., Valluru, B., Brown, J., Colclough, G., et al. (2010). Surveillance for certain health behaviors among states and selected local areas—United States, 2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summary, 59, 1–221.Google Scholar
- 14.Miranda, J. J., Herrera, V. M., Chirinos, J. A., Gómez, L. F., Perel, P., Pichardo, R., et al. (2013). Major cardiovascular risk factors in Latin America: A comparison with the United States. The Latin American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO). PLoS ONE, 8, e54056.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Anthropometry Procedures Manual. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/nhanes_07_08/manual_an.pdf. Accessed April 21, 2013.
- 22.National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (1998) Clinical Guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: The evidence report. Washington, DC: NIH Publication no. 98-4083.Google Scholar
- 23.World Health Organization. (2000) Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Technical Report Series 894.Google Scholar
- 24.Grundy, S. M., Cleeman, J. I., Daniels, S. R., Donato, K. A., Eckel, R. H., Franklin, B. A., et al. (2005). Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: An American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation, 112, 2735–2752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 33.Festa, A., D’Agostino, R, Jr, Mykkanen, L., Tracy, R. P., Zaccaro, D. J., Hales, C. N., et al. (1999). Relative contribution of insulin and its precursors to fibrinogen and PAI-1 in a large population with different states of glucose tolerance: The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 19, 562–568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar