Lifestyle-Related Determinants of Hookah and Cigarette Smoking in Iranian Adults
- 335 Downloads
To identify lifestyle-related determinants of hookah and cigarette smoking in Iranian adults, a total of 12,514 men and women aged ≥19 years in three counties in central Iran (Isfahan, Najafabad, Arak) were selected in multistage random sampling. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected in interviewer-administered questionnaires, as part of the baseline survey of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Unhealthy lifestyle-related factors independently associated with cigarette and hookah smoking, were identified in sex-specific multivariate logistic regression analyses. High stress levels (OR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.35–1.78 for men; OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.17–2.27 for women), family member smoking (OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.27–4.92 for men; OR: 2.49; 95% CI: 2.20–2.95 for women), and short/long sleep duration (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01–1.39 for men; OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.10–2.35 for women) were associated with cigarette smoking in both men and women. Poor diet was also related to cigarette smoking in men (OR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.62–1.89). Family member smoking was associated with hookah smoking in both men (OR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.05–3.12) and women (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.02–4.92), and in addition high stress levels (OR: 2.87; 95% CI: 1.14–5.83) and short/long sleep duration (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02–2.41) were associated with hookah smoking in women. Unhealthy lifestyle-related factors co-occur with cigarette and hookah smoking in Iranian adults, likely increasing the risk for chronic health problems. Sex differences in the determinants of hookah and cigarette smoking may need to be taken into account in planning tobacco control strategies.
KeywordsTobacco use Hookah Life style Iran
The authors thank the scientific and executive collaborators of the IHHP, and in particular Dr. Ahmad Bahonar for his technical support. The authors also thank Miss Hengameh Noori for her help with data management. Jennifer O’Loughlin holds a Canada Research Chair in the Early Determinants of Adult Chronic Disease.
- 1.WHO study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg). (2005). Waterpipe, tobacco smoking: Health effects, research needs and recommended actions by regulators. World Health Organization. Tobacco Free Initiation.Google Scholar
- 7.Ashmawi, M. (1993). Some predictive markers of artherosclerosis among smokers. Ain Shams Medical Journal, 44, 633–639.Google Scholar
- 13.WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic: The MPOWER package. (2008). Geneva: WHO, pp. 14–21.Google Scholar
- 14.Mohammad, K., Noorbala, A. A., Majdzadeh, S. R., & Karimloo, M. (2000). Trend of tobacco smoking in Iran 1991–2000. Hakim Research Journal, 3(4), 290–297.Google Scholar
- 17.Sarraf-Zadegan, N., Sadri, G., Malek Afzali, H., Baghaei, M., Mohammadi Fard, N., Shahrokhi, S., et al. (2003). Isfahan Healthy Heart Programme: A comprehensive integrated community-based programme for cardiovascular disease prevention and control. Acta Cardiologica, 58(4), 309–320.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.World Health Organization. (1998). Guidelines for controlling and monitoring the tobacco epidemic. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
- 20.Leparki, E., & Nussel, E. (1987). CINDI: Contrywide integrated non-communicable diseases interventional programme: Protocol and guidelines for monitoring and evaluation procedures (pp. 73–82). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
- 21.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sleep and sleep disorders. [http://www.cdc.gov/sleep/how_much_sleep.html].
- 22.Physical Activity and Health. A Report of the Surgeon General Executive Summary. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/pdf/chap5.pdf].
- 23.Goldberg, D. (1992). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). UK: NFER-Nelson Windsor.Google Scholar
- 27.WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. (2006). Tobacco use in shisha: Studies on waterpipe smoking in Egypt. World Health Organization: Egyptian Smoking Prevention Research Institute.Google Scholar
- 28.Greenlund, K. J., Liu, K., Knox, S., McCreath, H., Dyer, A. R., & Gardin, J. (1995). Psychosocial work characteristics and cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adults: The CARDIA study. Coronary artery risk disease in young adults. Social Science and Medicine, 41, 717–723.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 30.McCaffery, J. M., Papandonatos, G. D., Lyons, M. J., Koenen, K. C., Tsuang, M. T., & Niaura, R. (2007). Educational attainment, smoking initiation and lifetime nicotine dependence among male Vietnam-era twins. Psychological Medicine, 22, 1–11.Google Scholar