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Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence and Associated Injury Among Urban Women


The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for abuse and IPV related injury among an urban population. This study reports an additional analysis of a case-control study conducted from 1994 to 2000 in 11 USA metropolitan cities where of 4746 women, 3637 (76.6%) agreed to participate. Control group women (N = 845) were identified through random digit dialing. Significant risk factors for abuse included women’s young age (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.05 p = .011), being in fair or poor mental health (AOR 2.65 p < .001), and former partner (AOR 3.33 p < .001). Risk factors for partners perpetrating IPV included not being a high school graduate (AOR 2.06 p = .014), being in fair or poor mental health (AOR 6.61 p < .001), having a problem with drug (AOR 1.94 p = .020) or alcohol use (AOR 2.77 p = .001), or pet abuse (AOR 7.59 p = .011). College completion was observed to be protective (AOR 0.60, p < .001). Significant risk factors for injury included partner’s fair or poor mental health (AOR 2.13, p = .008), suicidality (AOR 2.11, p = .020), controlling behavior (AOR 4.31, p < .001), prior domestic violence arrest (AOR 2.66, p = .004), and relationship with victim of more than 1 year (AOR 2.30, p = .026). Through integration of partner related risk factors into routine and/or targeted screening protocols, we may identify more abused women and those at greater risk of abuse and injury.

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This work was supported in part by funding from the National Institute on drug Abuse, K23 DA13955. The study was supported by joint funding from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institutes on Aging, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the National Institute of Justice. Grant Support: R01 DA/AA11156 “Risk factors for Homicide in Violent Intimate Relationships.” (Campbell, PI). Additional funding was obtained from the Collins Foundation to assist in the collection of data from one of the 6 cities and from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for collection of the data on the nonabused controls (S, Wilt, PI). We would like to thank all of the participants in the study a well as all of the co-investigators: Daniel Webster, ScD, MPH, Phyllis Sharps, PhD, RN, Janet Schollenberger, MHS, and Kathryn Laughon, PhD, also from Johns Hopkins University, as well as Jane Koziol-McLain, PhD, RN, Carolyn Block, PhD, Doris Campbell, PhD, RN, Mary Ann Curry, PhD, RN, Faye Gary, PhD, RN, Nancy Glass, PhD, MPH, RN, Judith McFarlane, PhD, RN, Carolyn Sachs, MD, MPH, Yvonne Ulrich, PhD, RN, Susan A. Wilt, DrPH, and Xiao Xu, PhD, RN.

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Correspondence to Benita J. Walton-Moss DNS, APRN, BC.

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Walton-Moss, B.J., Manganello, J., Frye, V. et al. Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence and Associated Injury Among Urban Women. J Community Health 30, 377–389 (2005).

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  • women
  • intimate
  • partner
  • violence