Gambling Behaviour: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Relation with Acculturation in 2007–2018 North Cyprus Adult Household Surveys

Abstract

In this study, the prevalence of gambling behaviors among the North Cyprus (NC) in 2018 is compared with the data of 2007, 2012, 2014 and the relationship between acculturation and problem and pathological gambling (PPG) is examined. The population of the study consists of Turkish-speaking individuals between 18 and 65 years of age living in NC. 799 people were consequently selected according to gender, age and geographical region with a multi-stage stratified (randomized) quota. For the collection of the data, a demographic questionnaire, the Turkish version of the Revised South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and cultural attitude scale (CAS) were used. The prevalence data were compared with the research done by the same researchers in 2007 (n = 1012), 2012 (n = 996) and 2014 (n = 958) which were conducted by same method and questionnaire. The vast majority of participants (70.6%) participated in one or more of the 17 types of gambling activities at least once during their lifetime. Pathologic gambling doubled and rose to 4.5% in 2007–2018 periods. Being male, age range of 18–29, single, living alone and marry less than 5 years are the risk factors for PPG. Separation and integration attitude were related with PPG among Cyprus-born individuals. The study shows that gambling behavior is widespread in the NC and pathologic gambling is increasingly rapidly. High rates of gambling addiction, should be assessed in its own social structure for each community and it should be taken into consideration that acculturation is an effective factor in increasing PPG.

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Acknowledgement

We would like to acknowledge the Near East University psychology students who contributed to the collection of the data.

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Authors

Contributions

Each author made substantive contribution towards the development of this paper. MC is the major investigator for this study, conceptualized the topic of study, coordinated all the data collection, and made substantive contribution in the drafting and writing up of the paper. EC is also a investigator of the study and made strong support in writing up this paper. AB, supported data collection, designing the study tools, training of the pollsters and participated in writing up the paper. MK did all the statistical analysis and thoroughly reviewed the final draft.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mehmet Çakıcı.

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All the authors report no financial relationships with commercial interests.

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Written informed consent from all participants was also obtained.

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The study was approved by the Social and Science Institute Ethical Board at the Near East University of NC and was conducted according to the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.

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Çakıcı, M., Çakıcı, E., Babayiğit, A. et al. Gambling Behaviour: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Relation with Acculturation in 2007–2018 North Cyprus Adult Household Surveys. J Gambl Stud (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-021-10008-3

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Keywords

  • Acculturation
  • Problem gambling
  • Pathologic gambling
  • Prevalence