Table 2 Main characteristics of the included studies (n = 55)

From: The Role of Virtual Communities in Gambling and Gaming Behaviors: A Systematic Review

References Method Type of the study n Age Female, % Focus Type of the virtual community
Badrinarayanan et al. (2014) Quantit. Cross-sectional 970 < 15–43+ 15.0% Gaming MMORPG
Badrinarayanan et al. (2015) Quantit. Cross-sectional 970 < 15–43+ 15.0% Gaming MMORPG
Ben-Ur et al. (2015) Mixed Multimethod 1695 N/A N/A Gaming MMORPG; game forum
Blackburn et al. (2014) Quantit. Longitudinal > 12 million N/A N/A Gaming Game community
Canossa et al. (2019) Quantit. Longitudinal Multiple data N/A N/A Gaming In-game community
Caputo (2015) Mixed Content analytic 24 Adults 12.5% Gambl. PG forum
Chang et al. (2014) Quantit. Cross-sectional 166 < 19–40+ 44.0% Gaming Game networks
Deans et al. (2017) Qualit. Interview 50 20–37 0.0% Gambl. SNS sites
Fang et al. (2009) Mixed Multimethod 33 Multiple data Multiple data Gaming MMORPG
Gainsbury et al. (2015) Qualit. Interview 10 20–65+ 40.0% Both SNS sites/in-game interaction
Ghazali et al. (2019) Quantit. Cross-sectional 362 < 18–45+ 38.7% Gaming Game community
Gong et al. (2019) Quantit. Longitudinal 410 < 20–40+ 29.0% Gaming In-game community
Goodfellow (2015) Qualit. Multimethod 75 N/A N/A Gaming Game forums; in-game community
Griffiths and Light (2008) Qualit. Field study N/A N/A N/A Gaming In-game community
Gui (2018) Qualit. Ethnographic 190 N/A N/A Gaming Game forum; MMORPG
Hickerson and Mowen (2012) Quantit. Cross-sectional 141 12–38 1.0% Gaming In-game community
Hing et al. (2015) Quantit. Cross-sectional 620 Mean age 37.6 20.2% Gambl. PG forum/support group
Hota and Derbaix (2016) Qualit. Interview 20 8–12 50.0% Gaming MMORPG
Howe et al. (2019) Quantit. Cross-sectional 3361 18–88 52.0% Gambl. Discussion boards
Hsieh and Tseng (2018) Quantit. Cross-sectional 605 < 20–39 18.0% Gaming Online social groups
Hsu and Lu (2007) Quantit. Cross-sectional 356 Majority < 25 24.0% Gaming In-game community
Huang et al. (2012) Quantit. Cross-sectional 850 Majority < 24 About 33.3% Gaming Game forum
Huang et al. (2018) Quantit. Cross-sectional 2212 18–55 15.6% Gaming In-game community
Järvinen-Tassopoulos (2016) Qualit. Content analytic 48 N/A N/A Gambl. PG forum
Jin et al. (2017) Quantit. Cross-sectional 214 < 21–36+ 8.4% Gaming MMORPG
Kaptein et al. (2015) Quantit. Longitudinal Multiple data Multiple data Multiple data Both Gambling/gaming forum
Khazaal et al. (2017) Quantit. Cross-sectional 372 19–61 9.0% Gambl. In-game interaction
Y. B. Kim et al. (2015) Quantit. Sentiment analytic Multiple data N/A N/A Gaming Game forum
Y. B. Kim et al. (2017 ) Quantit. Sentiment analytic 2,931,748 N/A N/A Gaming Game forum
M. Kim and J. Kim (2018) Quantit. Cross-sectional 348 10–40+ 14.4% Gaming Game community
King et al. (2020) Quantit. Cross-sectional 428 18–60+ 6.5% Gaming In-game community
Lee et al. (2018) Quantit. Cross-sectional 320 < 20–30+ 37.5% Both Online social networks
Lehdonvirta (2009) Qualit. Exploratory N/A N/A N/A Gaming In-game community
Liao et al. (2012) Quantit. Cross-sectional 280 < 12–49+ 19.6% Gaming Game community
Lin et al. (2008) Quantit. Cross-sectional 501 N/A 32.0% Gaming In-game community
Lindholm et al. (2012) Quantit. Longitudinal 4475 N/A N/A Gambl. Poker community
McGowan (2003) Qualit. Discourse analytic N/A N/A 100.0% Gambl. PG forum/support group
Mudry and Strong (2013) Qualit. Ethnographic 1791 N/A N/A Gambl. PG forum
O’Leary and Carroll (2013) Qualit. Ethnographic N/A N/A N/A Gambl. Poker forum
Park et al. (2018) Quantit. Longitudinal 4645 N/A N/A Gaming MMORPG
Parke and Griffiths (2011) Qualit. Ethnographic 271 N/A N/A Gambl. Poker community
Pinto et al. (2015) Qualit. Multimethod Multiple data 15–26 0.0% Gaming MMORPG
Rantala and Sulkunen (2012) Qualit. Content analytic 487 N/A N/A Gambl. PG forum
Rapp (2018) Qualit. Ethnographic Multiple data Multiple data Multiple data Gaming MMORPG
Rodda et al. (2018) Mixed Content analytic 1370 N/A N/A Gambl. PG forum
Schüll (2016) Qualit. Multimethod Multiple data N/A N/A Gambl. Poker forum; in-game interaction
Shukla and Drennan (2018) Quantit. Cross-sectional 358 18–35+ 36.3% Gaming MMORPG
Sierra et al. (2016) Quantit. Cross-sectional 970 < 15–43+ 15.0% Gaming MMORPG
Sirola et al. (2018) Quantit. Cross-sectional 1200 15–25 50.0% Gambl. Gambling forums (PG and other)
Sirola et al. (2019) Quantit. Cross-sectional Multiple data 15–30 Multiple data Gambl. Gambling forums (PG and other)
Smith et al. (2012) Quantit. Cross-sectional 194 18–51+ 2.6% Gambl. In-game interaction
Vella et al. (2019) Qualitat. Interview 36 19–30 30.56% Gaming In-game community
Wen et al. (2016) Quantit. Prototyping development 277 18–40+ 36.46% Gambl. SNS sports betting community
Wood and Wood (2009) Mixed Multimethod Multiple data Multiple data Multiple data Gambl. PG forum
Zhang et al. (2018) Quantit. Cross-sectional 2753 N/A N/A Gaming Game community
  1. Qualit. qualitative, quantit. quantitative, gambl. gambling, PG problem gambling, SNS social network site, N/A not applicable/not mentioned