Table 2 12-month participation among last year gamblers (N = 4422) in 15 game types across three surveys

From: The Gambling Consumption Mediation Model (GCMM): A Multiple Mediation Approach to Estimate the Association of Particular Game Types with Problem Gambling

# Game type Statistic 2007 (n = 1398) 2011 (n = 1264) 2017 (n = 1760) Total X2 (df = 2); p; Cramer’s V
1 Lotto offline Count 1057 1003 1197 3257 52.772;
p ≤ 0.001; 0.109
% within year 75.6% 79.4% 68.0% 73.7%
2 Lotto online on an Icelandic website Count 121 133 344 598 92.645;
p ≤ 0.001; 0.145
% within year 8.7% 10.5% 19.5% 13.5%
3 Electronic gaming machine offline Count 210 163 181 554 16.174;
p ≤ 0.001; 0.06
% within year 15.0% 12.9% 10.3% 12.5%
4 Scratch cards offline Count 428 383 576 1387 2.547;
p = 0.280; 0.024
% within year 30.6% 30.3% 32.7% 31.4%
5 Betting on sport pools offline Count 107 98 101 306 6.344;
p = 0.042; 0.038
% within year 7.7% 7.8% 5.7% 6.9%
6 Betting on sport pools online on an Icelandic website Count 30 47 92 169 20.177;
p ≤ 0.001; 0.068
% within year 2.1% 3.7% 5.2% 3.8%
7 Sport betting offline Count 49 53 49 151 4.478;
p = 0.107; 0.032
% within year 3.5% 4.2% 2.8% 3.4%
8 Sport betting online on an Icelandic website Count 21 37 66 124 14.543;
p ≤ 0.001; 0.057
% within year 1.5% 2.9% 3.8% 2.8%
9 Live betting online on an Icelandic or foreign website Count 11 10 81 102 68.372;
p ≤ 0.001; 0.124
% within year 0.8% 0.8% 4.6% 2.3%
10 Sport betting online on a foreign website Count 3 15 94 112 95.93;
p ≤ 0.001; 0.147
% within year 0.2% 1.2% 5.3% 2.5%
11 Poker offline Count 104 196 169 469 48.671;
p ≤ 0.001; 0.105
% within year 7.4% 15.5% 9.6% 10.6%
12 Poker online on a foreign website Count 4 41 36 81 33.033;
p ≤ 0.001; 0.086
% within year 0.3% 3.2% 2.0% 1.8%
13 Betting on skill games offline Count 44 40 27 111 11.383;
p = 0.003; 0.051
% within year 3.1% 3.2% 1.5% 2.5%
14 Bingo offline Count 125 192 371 688 87.559;
p ≤ 0.001; 0.141
% within year 8.9% 15.2% 21.1% 15.6%
15 Other online gambling on foreign websites (not poker or betting), e.g. EGM, scratch cards or casino games Count 7 17 38 62 15.542;
p ≤ 0.001; 0.059
% within year 0.5% 1.3% 2.2% 1.4%
  1. Cramer’s V: 0.1 = small effect; 0.3 = medium effect; 0.5 = large effect. At least small effects are bold