Gambling and Sport: Implicit Association and Explicit Intention Among Underage Youth
This study examined whether an implicit association existed between gambling and sport among underage youth in Australia, and whether this implicit association could shape their explicit intention to gamble. A sample of 14–17 year old Australian participants completed two phases of tasks, including an implicit association test based online experiment, and a post-experiment online survey. The results supported the existence of an implicit association between gambling and sport among the participants. This implicit association became stronger when they saw sport-relevant (vs. sport-irrelevant) gambling logos, or gambling-relevant (vs. gambling-irrelevant) sport names. In addition, this implicit association was positively related to the amount of sport viewing, but only among those participants who had more favorable gambling attitudes. Lastly, gambling attitudes and advertising knowledge, rather than the implicit association, turned out to be significant predictors of the explicit intention to gamble.
KeywordsGambling Sport Implicit association Explicit intention Gambling attitudes Advertising knowledge
This research was funded by a Grant from the Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation. A previous version of this paper has been submitted as part of a research report to the Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
En Li has received research grants from the Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation and Gambling Research Australia. Erika Langham has received research funds from the Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation, Gambling Research Australia, Department of Human Services, New Zealand Ministry of Health, Menzies School of Health; received an Honorarium from Gambling Research Exchange Ontario; and had travel expenses paid by Gamble Aware and the Gambling Research Exchange Ontario. Matthew Browne has received grants from the Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation, the New Zealand Ministry of Health and Gambling Research Australia. Matthew Rockloff has received research grants from the Queensland Treasury, the Victorian Treasury, the Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation, the New Zealand Ministry of Health and Gambling Research Australia. Hannah Thorne has received research grant from the Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation.
All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
- AFP. (2015). Global sports gambling worth ‘up to $3 trillion’. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-3040540/Global-sports-gambling-worth-3-trillion.html.
- Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA). (2015). Attachment B: Children’s television viewing—Analysis of audience data 2001–13. Retrieved from http://www.acma.gov.au/theACMA/Library/researchacma/Research-reports/childrens-television-viewing-research.
- Council of Australian Governments. (2011). Communique. Canberra: Australian Government. Retrieved from http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/search/display/display.w3p;query=Id%3A%22media%2Fpressrel%2F2048116%22.
- Derevensky, J. L., & Gilbeau, L. (2015). Adolescent gambling: Twenty-five years of research. Canadian Journal of Addiction, 6(2), 4–12.Google Scholar
- Foley-Train, J. (2014). Sports betting: Commercial and integrity issues. Report prepared for the Association of British Bookmakers, European Gaming and Betting Association, European Sport Security Association and Remote Gambling Association. Retrieved from http://www.egba.eu/media/Sports-Betting-Report-FINAL.pdf.
- Fricker, R. D., Jr. (2016). Sampling methods for online surveys. In N. G. Fielding, R. M. Lee, & G. Blank (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of online research methods (pp. 162–183). London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Friend, K. B., & Ladd, G. T. (2009). Youth gambling advertising: A review of the lessons learned from tobacco control. Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy, 16(4), 283–297.Google Scholar
- Gawronski, B., & De Houwer, J. (2014). Implicit measures in social and personality psychology. In H. T. Reis & C. M. Judd (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in social and personality psychology (2nd ed., pp. 283–310). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Higgins, E. T. (1996). Knowledge activation: Accessibility, applicability, and salience. In E. T. Higgins & A. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 133–168). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Korn, D., Hurson, T., & Reynolds, J. (2005). Commercial gambling advertising: Possible impact on youth knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behavioural intentions. Guelph: Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre.Google Scholar
- McMullan, J. L., Miller, D. E., & Perrier, D. C. (2012). “I’ve seen them so much they are just there”: Exploring young people’s perceptions of gambling in advertising. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 10(6), 829–848. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-012-9379-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Milner, L., Hing, N., Vitartas, P., & Lamont, M. (2013). Embedded gambling promotion in Australian football broadcasts: An exploratory study. Communication, Politics & Culture, 46(2), 177–198.Google Scholar
- Parliamentary Joint Select Committee on Gambling Reform. (2013). Fifth report: The advertising and promotion of gambling services in sport. Canberra: Australian Government. Retrieved from http://www.aph.gov.au/~/media/wopapub/senate/committee/gamblingreform_ctte/completed_inquires/2010-13/gambling_sport/report/report.ashx.
- Sauer, R. D. (1998). The economics of wagering markets. Journal of Economic Literature, 36(4), 2021–2064.Google Scholar
- Saxon, J. (2017). Why your customers’ attention is the scarcest resource in 2017. Retrieved from https://www.ama.org/partners/content/Pages/why-customers-attention-scarcest-resources-2017.aspx.
- Solomon, M. R., Russell-Bennett, R., & Previte, J. (2013). Consumer behaviour: Buying, having, being. Frenchs Forest: Pearson Australia.Google Scholar
- Sproston, K., Hanley, C., Brook, K., Hing, N., & Gainsbury, S. (2015). Marketing of sports betting and racing. Melbourne: Gambling Research Australia.Google Scholar
- Wyer, R. S. (2008). The role of knowledge accessibility in cognition and behavior: Implications for consumer information processing. In C. P. Haugtvedt, P. M. Herr, & F. R. Kardes (Eds.), Handbook of consumer psychology (pp. 31–76). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar