Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 1035–1037 | Cite as

When Criticizing Others It is Helpful to Focus on Actual Behavior: A Comment About Auer and Griffiths (2016)

  • Howard J. Shaffer
  • Matthew A. Tom
  • Julia Braverman
Review Paper

Recently, Auer and Griffiths published a study focusing on actual—not self-reported—gamblers’ online wins and losses (Auer and Griffiths 2016). Part of their justification for conducting this study included reference to our publication “accuracy of self-reported versus actual online-gambling wins and losses,” which was the first study to examine the important differences between actual and self-reported gambling wins and losses (Braverman et al. 2014). Understanding the difference between actual wins and losses and self-reported wins and losses is essential to understanding some of the cognitive and other psychological processes associated with gambling, memory, and cognitive distortion. For example, “… it is abundantly clear from… research… and everyday observation that people have not always done what they say they have done, will not always do what they say they will do, and often do not even know the real causes of the things they do. These discrepancies mean that self-reports of...


Actual Behavior Gambling Behavior Subject Pool Casino Game Game Combination 
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Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors individually and collectively declare that they have no conflict of interest. Nonetheless, we want to disclose that The Division on Addiction at the Cambridge Health Alliance has received research grants and contracts from a variety of sources, including the following: Interactive Entertainment, AG; the Foundation for Advancing Alcohol Responsibility (FAAR); National Institutes of Health (i.e., NIDA, NIAAA, NIMH); Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA); the National Center for Responsible Gambling (NCRG); Massachusetts Council on Compulsive Gambling; the Massachusetts Gaming Commission; and the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Dr. Shaffer has received funding for consultation from many sources including Las Vegas Sands Corp., Davies Ward Phillips & Vineberg, LLP, and the DUNES of Easthampton. Dr. Tom and Braverman have no individual financial matters to disclose.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Howard J. Shaffer
    • 1
    • 2
  • Matthew A. Tom
    • 2
  • Julia Braverman
    • 3
  1. 1.Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Division on AddictionThe Cambridge Health AllianceCambridgeUSA
  3. 3.Cardinal HealthDublinUSA

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