Advertisement

Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 877–887 | Cite as

Intergenerational Childhood Maltreatment in Persons with DSM-IV Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives

  • Samuel K. Shultz
  • Martha Shaw
  • Brett McCormick
  • Jeff Allen
  • Donald W. Black
Original Paper

Abstract

This study investigates the characteristics of individuals with DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG) who experienced childhood maltreatment and rates of maltreatment occurring in their first-degree relatives (FDRs). 94 subjects with DSM-IV PG, 91 controls, and 312 FDRs were assessed for childhood maltreatment as part of a family study of PG. Maltreatment was evaluated using the Revised Childhood Experiences Questionnaire. The Family Assessment Device was used to evaluate the functionality of the PG subject’s (or control’s) family of origin. Data were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations. Rates of maltreatment were significantly higher in subjects with PG than controls (61 vs. 25 %, P < 0.001). Subjects with PG who experienced maltreatment were more likely to be female, had more severe PG symptoms, had co-occurring mood and anxiety disorders, and reported greater early family life dysfunction than those with PG who did not experience maltreatment. Rates of maltreatment were higher in FDRs of PG subjects than controls (41 vs. 24 %, P = .002). Rates in FDRs of individuals with PG who experienced maltreatment themselves were still higher that in FDRs of those with PG who did not experience maltreatment (50 vs. 28 %, P = .009). The former were also more likely to have anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and suicide attempts. The results suggest that childhood maltreatment in persons with PG is common and intergenerational. Rates of maltreatment in FDRs of PG subjects are high, particularly among those who experienced abuse. The implications of the findings are discussed.

Keywords

Abuse Maltreatment Trauma Gambling disorder Family studies 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The research was supported through grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01DA021361), and the National Institute on Aging (R01AG037132), Bethesda, MD. Dr. Black receives research support from AstraZeneca. He receives royalties from American Psychiatric Publishing, Oxford University Press, and UpToDate.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Drs. Schultz and Allen, Mr. McCormick, and Ms. Shaw report no conflicts.

References

  1. Afifi, T. O., Brownridge, D. A., MacMillan, H., & Sareen, J. (2010). The relationship of gambling to intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in a nationally representative sample. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 44(5), 331–337.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  3. Argo, T., & Black, D. (2004). The characteristics of pathological gambling. In J. E. Grant & M. Potenza (Eds.), Understanding and treating pathological gambling (pp. 39–53). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing Inc.Google Scholar
  4. Ashley, L. L., & Boehlke, K. K. (2012). Pathological gambling: A general overview. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 44(1), 27–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Black, D. W., Coryell, W. H., Crowe, R. R., McCormick, B., Shaw, M. C., & Allen, J. (2014). A direct, controlled, blind family study of DSM-IV pathological gambling. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 75(3), 215–221.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Black, D. W., Monahan, P. O., Temkit, M., & Shaw, M. (2006). A family study of pathological gambling. Psychiatry Research, 141(3), 295–303.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Black, D. W., & Moyer, T. (1998). Clinical features and psychiatric comorbidity of subjects with pathological gambling behavior. Psychiatric Services (Washington, D. C.), 49(11), 1434–1439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Black, D. W., Moyer, T., & Schlosser, S. (2003). Quality of life and family history in pathological gambling. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 191(2), 124–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Black, D. W., Shaw, M. C., McCormick, B. A., & Allen, J. (2012). Marital status, childhood maltreatment, and family dysfunction: A controlled study of pathological gambling. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 73(10), 1293–1297.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Darbyshire, P., Oster, C., & Carrig, H. (2001). The experience of pervasive loss: Children and young people living in a family where parental gambling is a problem. Journal of Gambling Studies, 17(1), 23–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Epstein, N. B., Baldwin, L. M., & Bishop, D. S. (1983). The McMaster family assessment device. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 9, 171–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Grant, J. E., & Kim, S. W. (2002). Parental bonding in pathological gambling disorder. Psychiatric Quarterly, 73(3), 239–247.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hodgins, D. C., Schopflocher, D. P., el-Guebaly, N., Casey, D. M., Smith, G. J., Williams, R. J., & Wood, R. T. (2010). The association between childhood maltreatment and gambling problems in a community sample of adult men and women. Psychology of Addictive Behaviours, 24(3), 548–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kessler, R. C., Hwang, I., LaBrie, R., Petukhova, M., Sampson, N. A., Winters, K. C., & Shaffer, H. J. (2008). DSM-IV pathological gambling in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Psychological Medicine, 38(9), 1351–1360.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Leppink, E., & Grant, J. (2015). Traumatic event exposure and gambling: Associations with clinical, neurocognitive, and personality variables. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists, 27(1), 16–24.Google Scholar
  16. Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1987). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): A new instrument for identification of pathological gamblers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184–1188.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Lesieur, H. R., & Custer, R. L. (1984). Pathological gambling: Roots, phases, and treatment. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 474(471), 146–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Linden, R. D., Pope, H. G, Jr, & Jonas, J. M. (1986). Pathological gambling and major affective disorder: Preliminary findings. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 47(4), 201–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Lorenz, V.C. (1987). Family dynamics of pathological gamblers. In T. Galski (Eds.), The Handbook of Pathological Gambling (pp. 83–84). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  20. Lorenz, V. C., & Shuttlesworth, D. E. (1983). The impact of pathological gambling on the spouse of the gambler. Journal of Community Psychology, 11(1), 67–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Muelleman, R. L., DenOtter, T., Wadman, M. C., Tran, T. P., & Anderson, J. (2002). Problem gambling in the partner of the emergency department patient as a risk factor for intimate partner violence. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 23(3), 307–312.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Najavits, L. M. (2008). Treatment utilization of pathological gamblers with and without PTSD. Journal of Gammbling Studies, 26, 583–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. NORC. (1999). Gambling impact and behavioral study. Report to the National Gambling Impact Study Commission.Google Scholar
  24. Oliver, J. E. (1993). Intergenerational transmission of child abuse: Rates, research, and clinical implications. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150(9), 1315–1324.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Petry, N. M. (2005). Pathological gambling: Etiology, comorbidity, and treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Petry, N. M., & Kiluk, B. D. (2002). Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 190(7), 462–469.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Petry, N. M., & Steinberg, K. L. (2005). Childhood maltreatment in male and female treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19(2), 226–229.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Petry, N. M., Stinson, F. S., & Grant, B. F. (2005). Comorbidity of DSM-IV pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66(5), 564–574.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ramirez, L. F., McCormick, R. A., Russo, A. M., & Taber, J. I. (1983). Patterns of substance abuse in pathological gamblers undergoing treatment. Addictive Behaviors, 8(4), 425–428.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Renner, L. M., & Slack, K. S. (2006). Intimate partner violence and child maltreatment: understanding intra- and intergenerational connections. Child Abuse and Neglect, 30(6), 599–617.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Roy, A., Adinoff, B., Roehrich, L., Lamparski, D., Custer, R., Lorenz, V., et al. (1988). Pathological gambling. A psychobiological study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45(4), 369–373.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Scherrer, J. F., Xian, H., Kapp, J. M. K., Waterman, B., Shah, K. R., Volberg, R., & Eisen, S. A. (2007). Association between exposure to childhood and lifetime traumatic events and lifetime pathological gambling in a twin cohort. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195(1), 72–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Shaw, M. C., Forbush, K. T., Schlinder, J., Rosenman, E., & Black, D. W. (2007). The effect of pathological gambling on families, marriages, and children. CNS Spectrums, 12(8), 615–622.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Volberg, R. A. (1994). The prevalence and demographics of pathological gamblers: Implications for public health. American Journal of Public Health, 84(2), 237–241.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Walters, G. D. (2001). Behavior genetic research on gambling and problem gambling: A preliminary meta-analysis of available data. Journal of Gambling Studies, 17(4), 255–271.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Zanarini, M. C., Gunderson, J. G., Marino, M. F., Schwarz, E. O., & Frankenburg, F. R. (1989). Childhood experiences of borderline patients. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 30, 18–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel K. Shultz
    • 1
  • Martha Shaw
    • 1
  • Brett McCormick
    • 1
  • Jeff Allen
    • 1
  • Donald W. Black
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, 2-126B MEB/Psychiatry ResearchUniversity of Iowa Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of MedicineIowa CityUSA

Personalised recommendations