Validation of the Chinese Version of the Gamblers’ Belief Questionnaire (GBQ-C)
- 330 Downloads
A growing body of evidence is documenting the significant role of cognitive factors in influencing gambling behaviors. Although measures of cognitive biases have been developed, further validation of these scales is needed among non-Western samples. The 21-item Gamblers’ Belief Questionnaire was originally developed and validated by Steenbergh et al. (in Psychol. Addict. Behav., 16: 143–149, 2002). The scale then has been widely used in the gambling research of the West. The present study was designed to examine and validate the Chinese version of Gamblers’ Belief Questionnaire (GBQ-C) using 258 Chinese participants. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated the 2-factor model provided a good fit to the data as evidenced by various model fit indices (CFI = .91, RMSEA = .08 and SRMR = .05). Additional evidence for the validity of the GBQ-C was provided by significant correlations with other relevant measures (range .40–.75). In sum, the present study provides support for the GBQ-C as a valuable tool for assessing gambling cognitions among Chinese samples.
KeywordsGambling Chinese Belief Cognitions Validation
- Bentler, P. M., & Wu, E. J. C. (1995). EQS for Macintosh user’s guide. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software.Google Scholar
- Gabourey, A., & Ladouceur, R. (1989). Erroneous perceptions and gambling. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 4, 411–420.Google Scholar
- Jefferson, S., & Nicki, R. (2003). A new instrument to measure cognitive distortions in video lottery terminal users: The Informational Biases Scale (IBS)’. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20, 171–180.Google Scholar
- Kinzie, J. D., & Manson, S. M. (1987). The use of self-rating scales in cross-cultural psychiatry. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 38, 190–195.Google Scholar
- Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Ladouceur, R., & Walker, M. (1996). A cognitive perspective on gambling. In P. M. Salkoskvis (Ed.), Trends in cognitive and behavioral therapies (pp. 89–120). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Nurco, D. N. (1985). A discussion of validity. In B. A. Rouse, N. J. Kozel, & L. G. Richards (Eds.), Self-report methods of estimating drug use: Meeting current challenges to validity (pp. 4–11). NIDA Research Monograph No. 57. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
- Tang, C., & Oei, T. (2011). Gambling cognition and subjective welling as mediators between perceived stress and problem gambling: A cross-cultural study on White and Chinese problem gamblers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviours. Advance online publication, doi: 10.1037/a0024013.
- Tang, C., & Wu, A (2011). Gambling-related cognitive biases and pathological gambling among youths, young adults, and mature adults in Chinese societies. Journal of Gambling Studies. Advance online publication, doi: 10.1007/s10899-011-9294-x.
- The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. (2011). Retrieved July 20 2011 from the World Wide Web: http://www.pland.gov.hk/pland_en/tech_doc/hkpsg/full/ch3/pdf/ch3.pdf.
- The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. (2011, in press). Report on Hong Kong people’s participation in gambling activities. Hong Kong: Author.Google Scholar
- The University of Hong Kong. (2005). Report on a study of Hong Kong people’s participation in gambling activities. Hong Kong: Author.Google Scholar
- Yu, A. B. (1996). Ultimate life concerns, self, and chinese achievement motivation. In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The handbook of chinese psychology (pp. 227–246). Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar