Motivators for Seeking Gambling-Related Treatment Among Ontario Problem Gamblers
- 383 Downloads
A random digit dialing telephone survey was used to interview 8,467 adults in Ontario, Canada. The NODS-CLiP was used to identify a representative sample of 730 gamblers (54.3% male, mean age 45.3 years) with possible past year gambling problems in order to explore factors that might affect disordered gamblers’ motivators for seeking gambling-related help. A final sample of 526 gamblers provided useable data on possible reasons for and barriers to seeking help, awareness of services, self-perception of gambling problems and experience with help-seeking. Financial and relationship issues were the most frequently volunteered motivators. However, over two-thirds of the respondents could not think of a reason for seeking help. Gamblers who had self-admitted or more severe problems, who knew how to get help, who were employed and had more education, and who identified possible barriers to seeking help were more likely to suggest motivators, especially financial ones. More research is recommended on gamblers’ trajectory towards recognition of a gambling problem, the process of overcoming specific barriers to treatment, and the role of social advantage (e.g., education and employment), in order to devise educational campaigns that will encourage earlier help-seeking among disordered gamblers.
KeywordsProblem or pathological gambling Motivators for help-seeking Awareness of services Population survey Canada
This research was supported by the Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre, Guelph, Ontario. In addition, support to CAMH for salary of scientists and infrastructure has been provided by the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care. The telephone interviews in this study were conducted by staff of the Institute of Social Research, York University, Toronto, Ontario.
- ACNielsen. (2007). Prevalence of Gambling and Problem Gambling in NSW—A Community Survey 2006. Final Report. Retrieved March 8, 2008, from http://www.olgr.nsw.gov.au/pdfs/rr_prevalence_gambling.pdf.
- Alberta Gaming Research Institute. (2011, 03/01/11). Prevalence—Canada and Provinces. Retrieved 4 March, 2011, from http://www.abgaminginstitute.ualberta.ca/prevalence_canada.cfm.
- American Association for Public Opinion Research. (2011). Standard Definitions: Final Dispositions of Case Codes and Outcome Rates for Surveys, 7th edn. AAPOR.Google Scholar
- Braveman, P. A., Cubbin, C., Egerter, S., Williams, D. R., & Pamuk, E. (2010). Socioeconomic disparities in health in the United States: What the patterns tell us. American Journal of Public Health, 100(S1), S186–S196.Google Scholar
- Cooper, G. A. (2001). Online assistance for problem gamblers: An examination of participant characteristics and the role of stigma. Dissertation for Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto, Toronto.Google Scholar
- Cooper, G. (2004). Exploring and understanding online assistance for problem gamblers: The Pathways Disclosure Model. eCommunity: International Journal of Mental Health & Addiction, 1, 32–38.Google Scholar
- Cox, B. J., Kwong, J., Michaud, V., & Enns, M. W. (2000). Problem and probable pathological gambling: Considerations from a community survey. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 45, 548–553.Google Scholar
- Cunningham, J. A., Hodgins, D. C., Toneatto, T., & Cordingley, J. (2008). Final report. Barriers to treatment for problem gamblers in Ontario. (Final report for Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre). Toronto: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.Google Scholar
- Delfabbro, P. H., & LeCouteur, A. (2003). A decade of gambling research in Australia and New Zealand (1992–2002): Implications for policy, regulation and harm minimisation. A report prepared for the Independent Gambling Authority of South Australia. Retrieved 14 February, 2008, from http://www.iga.sa.gov.au/pdf/iga/6-LiteratureReview-final-print.pdf.
- Doiron, J. (2006). Gambling and problem gambling in Prince Edward Island. Retrieved 24 January, 2008, from http://www.gov.pe.ca/photos/original/doh_GambReport.pdf.
- Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. (2001). The Canadian problem gambling index: Final report. Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
- Focal Research Consultants. (2008). 2007 Adult gambling prevalence study. Retrieved 25 February, 2011, from http://www.gov.ns.ca/ohp/publications/Adult_Gambling_Report.pdf.
- Gerstein, D. R., Hoffmann, J., Larison, C., Engelman, L., Murphy, S., Palmer, A. et al. (1999). Gambling impact and behavior study. Report to the National Gambling Impact Study Commission, April 1, 1999. Retrieved 15 May, 2008, from http://cloud9.norc.uchicago.edu/dlib/ngis.htm.
- Hodgins, D. C., & Stinchfield, R. (2008). Gambling disorders. In J. Hunsley & E. J. Mash (Eds.), A guide to assessments that work (pp. 370–390). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Ialomiteanu, A. R., Adlaf, E. M., Mann, R. E., & Rehm, J. (2011). CAMH Monitor eReport: Addiction and Mental Health Indicators Among Ontario Adults, 1977–2009. (CAMH Research Document Series No. 31). Toronto: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.Google Scholar
- Ipsos Reid Public Affairs & Gemini Research. (2008). Final report: British Columbia problem gambling prevalence study. Retrieved 25 February, 2011, from https://dspace.ucalgary.ca/bitstream/1880/47570/1/rpt-rg-prevalence-study-2008.pdf.
- Jagdeo, A., Cox, B. J., Stein, M. B., & Sareen, J. (2009). Negative attitudes toward help seeking for mental illness in 2 population-based surveys from the United States and Canada. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54, 757–766.Google Scholar
- Keeter, S., Kennedy, C., Dimock, M., Best, J., & Craighill, P. (2006). Gauging the impact of growing nonresponse on estimates from a national RDD telephone survey. Public Opinion Quarterly, 70(5, Special Issue), 759–779.Google Scholar
- Langer, G. (2003). From the field—About response rates—Some unresolved questions. Public Perspective, 14(3), 16–18.Google Scholar
- Lemaire, J., MacKay, T.-L., & Patton, D. (2008). Manitoba Gambling and Problem Gambling 2006. Retrieved 25 February, 2011, from https://dspace.ucalgary.ca/bitstream/1880/47597/1/ManitobaGamblingandProblemGambling2006.pdf.
- Marketquest Research. (2009). 2009 Newfoundland and Labrador gambling prevalence study. Retrieved 7 March, 2011, from https://dspace.ucalgary.ca/bitstream/1880/47656/1/Newfoundland_Labrador_Gambling_Prevalence_2009.pdf.
- Marketquest Research. (2010). 2009 New Brunswick gambling prevalence study. Retrieved 25 February, 2011, from https://dspace.ucalgary.ca/bitstream/1880/48382/1/2009_NB_Gambling_Prevalence_Study-e.pdf.
- Marshall, K., & Wynne, H. (2003). Fighting the odds. Perspectives on Labour and Income, 4, 5–13.Google Scholar
- McMillen, J., Marshall, D., Murphy, L., Lorenzen, S., & Waugh, B. (2004). Help-seeking by problem gamblers, friends and families: A focus on gender and cultural groups. Retrieved March 26, 2008, from http://dspace.anu.edu.au/handle/1885/45186.
- Productivity Commission. (1999). Australia’s gambling industries inquiry report. Retrieved 15 February, 2008, from http://www.pc.gov.au/inquiry/gambling/docs/finalreport.
- Pulford, J., Bellringer, M., Abbott, M., Clarke, D., Hodgins, D., & Williams, J. (2009a). Barriers to help-seeking for a gambling problem: the experiences of gamblers who have sought specialist assistance and the perceptions of those who have not. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25, 33–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pulford, J., Bellringer, M. E., Abbott, M., Clarke, D., Hodgins, D., & Williams, J. D. (2009b). Reasons for seeking help for a gambling problem: The experiences of gamblers who have sought specialist assistance and the perceptions of those who have not. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25, 19–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shaffer, H. J., LaBrie, R. A., LaPlante, D. A., Nelson, S. E., & Stanton, M. V. (2004). The road less travelled: Moving from distribution to determinants in the study of gambling epidemiology. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49, 504–516.Google Scholar
- Slutske, W. S., Blaszczynski, A., & Martin, N. G. (2009). Sex differences in the rates of recovery, treatment-seeking, and natural recovery in pathological gambling: Results from an Australian community-based twin survey. Twin Research & Human Genetics: The Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies, 12, 425–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Smith, G., & Wynne, H. (2002). Measuring gambling and problem gambling in Alberta using the Canadian problem gambling index (C.P.G.I.). Final Report. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from https://dspace.ucalgary.ca/bitstream/1880/1626/1/gambling_alberta_cpgi.pdf.
- Suurvali, H., Hodgins, D. C., Toneatto, T., & Cunningham, J. A. Hesitation to seek gambling-related treatment among Ontario problem gamblers. Journal of Addiction Medicine (in press).Google Scholar
- Toce-Gerstein, M. T., & Volberg, R. A. (2004). The NODS-CLiP: A new brief screen for problem and pathological gambling. In International symposium on problem gambling and co-occurring disorders, Mystic, CT.Google Scholar
- Tremayne, K., Masterman-Smith, H., & McMillen, J. (2001). Survey of the nature and extent of gambling and problem gambling in the ACT. Retrieved 7 May, 2008, from http://www.gamblingandracing.act.gov.au/Documents/Survey%20of%20Problem%20Gambling%20in%20the%20ACT.pdf.
- Volberg, R. A., Nysse-Carris, K. L., & Gerstein, D. R. (2006). 2006 California problem gambling prevalence survey. Final Report. Retrieved 23 January, 2008, from http://www.adp.ca.gov/OPG/pdf/CA_Problem_Gambling_Prevalence_Survey-Final_Report.pdf.
- Wardle, H., Moody, A., Spence, S., Orford, J., Volberg, R., Jotangia, D. et al. (2011). British gambling prevalence survey 2010. Retrieved 18 February, 2011, from http://www.gamblingcommission.gov.uk/PDF/British%20Gambling%20Prevalence%20Survey%202010.pdf.
- Wardle, H., Sproston, K., Orford, J., Erens, B., Griffiths, M., Constantine, R. et al. (2007). British gambling prevalence survey 2007. Executive Summary. Retrieved 24 January, 2008, from http://www.gamblingcommission.gov.uk/uploadDocs/publications/Document/Exec%20Summary.pdf.
- Wiebe, J., Mun, P., & Kauffman, N. (2006). Gambling and problem gambling in Ontario 2005. Retrieved 24 January, 2008, from http://www.responsiblegambling.org/articles/gambling_and_problem_gambling_in_ontario_2005.pdf.
- Wiebe, J., & Volberg, R. A. (2007). Problem gambling prevalence research: A critical overview. A Report to the Canadian Gaming Association. Retrieved 25 February, 2011, from http://www.canadiangaming.ca/media_uploads/pdf/78.pdf.
- Wynne, H. J. (2002). Gambling and problem gambling in Saskatchewan. Retrieved 24 January, 2008, from http://www.health.gov.sk.ca/adx/aspx/adxGetMedia.aspx?DocID=317,94,88,Documents&MediaID=166&Filename=gambling-final-report.pdf.
- Wynne, H. J., Smith, G. J., & Volberg, R. A. (1994). Gambling and problem gambling in Alberta. Final report. Retrieved February, 2011, from https://dspace.ucalgary.ca/bitstream/1880/46867/1/Gambling_and_Problem_Gambling_in_Alberta_1994_Final_Report.pdf.