Advertisement

Journal of Gambling Studies

, 24:535 | Cite as

Offspring of Parents with Gambling Problems: Adjustment Problems and Explanatory Mechanisms

  • Frank Vitaro
  • Brigitte Wanner
  • Mara Brendgen
  • Richard E. Tremblay
Original Paper

Abstract

We compared offspring of problem gamblers (n = 42) to offspring of parents without gambling problems (n = 100) to see (1) whether the two groups differed with respect to depressive feelings and conduct/antisociality problems and (2) whether ineffective parenting or the offspring’s own gambling problems played a mediating role in this context. Participants were drawn from a relatively large community-based study (N = 1,872). Parents rated their own gambling and other mental health problems when their children were in mid-adolescence. The children’s self-reports on depressive feelings and conduct/antisociality problems were assessed at two points in time: by mid-adolescence and again by early adulthood. Results showed that children of parents with gambling problems reported more depressive feelings and more conduct problems by mid-adolescence than children of parents without gambling problems. Children of problem gamblers also experienced an increase in their depressive symptoms from mid-adolescence to early adulthood. Importantly, ineffective parenting, but not children’s gambling problems, mediated almost all the links between parental problem gambling and children’s adjustment problems. These results add to a very small data base showing that children of problem gamblers are at risk for a variety of adjustment problems.

Keywords

Parental problem gambling Child adjustment problems Parenting Longitudinal study Community sample 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was made possible by a grant from the Fonds Québécois de Recherche sur la Société et la Culture (FQRSC) and the Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services.

References

  1. Abbott, M. W., Williams, M., & Volberg, R. A. (2004). A prospective study of problem and regular non-problem gamblers living in the community. Substance use and Misuse, 39, 855–884.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev. ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (1969). Social-learning theory of identificatory processes. In D. A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 213–262). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  5. Barnes, G. M., Welte, J. W., Hoffman, J. H., & Dintcheff, B. A. (1999). Gambling and alcohol use among youth: Influences of demographic, socialization, and individual factors. Addictive Behaviors, 24, 749–767. doi: 10.1016/S0306-4603(99) 00048-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blaszczynski, A., & Steel, Z. (1998). Personality disorders among pathological gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14, 51–71. doi: 10.1023/A:1023098525869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blishen, B. R., Carroll, W. K., & Moore, C. (1987). The 1981 socioeconomic index for occupations in Canada. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 24, 465–488.Google Scholar
  9. Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., & Bukowski, W. M. (2000). Deviant friends and early adolescents’ emotional and behavioral adjustment. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 10, 173–189. doi: 10.1207/SJRA1002_3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carbonneau, R., Tremblay, R. E., Vitaro, F., Dobkin, P. L., Saucier, J.-F., & Pihl, R. O. (1998). Paternal alcoholism, paternal absence and the development of problem behaviors in boys from age 6 to 12 years. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59, 387–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ciarrocchi, J., & Hohmann, A. A. (1989). The family environment of married male pathological gamblers, alcoholics, and dually addicted gamblers. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 5, 283–291. doi: 10.1007/BF01672429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Darbyshire, P., Oster, C., & Carrig, H. (2001). The experience of pervasive loss: Children and young people living in a family where parental gambling is a problem. Journal of Gambling Studies, 17, 23–45. doi: 10.1023/A:1014536315167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Delfabbro, P., Lahn, J., & Grabosky, P. (2006). Psychosocial correlates of problem gambling in Australian students. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 587–595. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1614.2006.01843.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dishion, T. J., Capaldi, D. M., Spracklen, K. M., & Li, F. (1995). Peer ecology of male adolescent drug use. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 803–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dishion, T. J., Patterson, G. R., Stoolmiller, M., & Skinner, M. L. (1991). Family, school, and behavioral antecedents to early adolescent involvement with antisocial peers. Developmental Psychology, 27, 172–180. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.27.1.172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fitzgerald, H. E., Davies, W. H., & Zucker, R. A. (2002). Growing up in an alcoholic family. In R. J. McMahon & R. V. de Peters (Eds.), The effects of parental dysfunction on children (pp. 127–146). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  17. Govoni, R., Rupcick, N., & Frisch, G. R. (1996). Gambling behavior of adolescent gamblers. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 12, 305–317. doi: 10.1007/BF01539325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. L. (1997). Familial and social influences on juvenile gambling behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13, 179–192. doi: 10.1023/A:1024915231379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jacobs, D. F. (2000). Juvenile gambling in North America: An analysis of long-term trends and future prospects. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 16, 119–152. doi: 10.1023/A:1009476829902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jacobs, D. F., Marston, A. R., Singer, R. D., Widaman, K., Little, T., & Veizades, J. (1989). Children of problem gamblers. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 5, 261–268. doi: 10.1007/BF01672427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Johnson, J. L., & Leff, M. (1999). Children of substance abusers: Overview of research findings. Pediatrics, 103(Suppl. S), 1085–1099.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kelley, M. L., & Fals-Stewart, W. (2004). Psychiatric disorders of children living with drug-abusing, alcohol-abusing, and non-substance-abusing fathers. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 621–628. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200405000-00016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ladouceur, R., Boudreault, N., Jacques, C., & Vitaro, F. (1999). Pathological gambling and related problems among adolescents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 8, 55–68. doi: 10.1300/J029v08n04_04.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ladouceur, R., Jacques, C., Chevalier, S., Sévigny, S., & Hamel, D. (2005). Prevalence of pathological gambling in Quebec in 2002. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 50, 451–456.Google Scholar
  25. Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Rohde, P., Seeley, J. R., & Rohling, M. L. (2004). Individual, family, and peer correlates of adolescent gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20, 23–46. doi: 10.1023/B:JOGS.0000016702.69068.53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1987). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): A new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184–1188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Lesieur, H. R., Blume, S. B., & Zoppa, R. M. (1986). Alcoholism, drug abuse, and gambling. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 10, 33–38. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.1986.tb05610.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lesieur, H. R., & Rothschild, J. (1989). Children of gamblers anonymous members. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 5, 269–282. doi: 10.1007/BF01672428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (1998). The development of male offending: Key findings from the first decade of the Pittsburgh Youth Study. Studies on Crime & Crime Prevention, 7, 141–171.Google Scholar
  30. Long, J. S. (1997). Regression model for categorical and limited dependent variables. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course persistent antisocial behaviour: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.100.4.674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. National Institute of Mental Health. (1992). Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children - Child Informant (DISC-C) (version 2.3). New York, NY: New York State Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
  33. Patterson, G. R. (1982). A social learning approach (vol. 3). Coercive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  34. Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, B. D., & Ramsey, E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist, 44, 329–335. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.44.2.329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Robins L. N. (1995). Stadardized interviews for psychiatric assessment: Current issues and future prospects. In W. Holtzman (Ed.), Psychiatric assessment of Mexican-origin populations (pp. 3–12). Austin, Texas, Hogg Foundation for Mental Health, 1995.Google Scholar
  36. Slutske, W., Jackson, K. M., & Sher, K. J. (2003). The natural history of problem gambling. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 263–274. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.112.2.263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Vachon, J., Vitaro, F., Wanner, B., & Tremblay, R. E. (2004). Adolescent gambling: Relationships with parent gambling and parenting practices. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18, 398–401. doi: 10.1037/0893-164X.18.4.398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., Ladouceur, R., & Tremblay, R. E. (2001). Gambling, delinquency, and drug use during adolescence: Mutual influences and common risk factors. Journal of Gambling Studies, 17, 171–190. doi: 10.1023/A:1012201221601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vitaro, F., Pedersen, S., & Brendgen, M. (2007). Children’s disruptiveness, peer rejection, friends’ deviancy, and delinquent behaviors: A process-oriented approach. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 433–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Volberg, R. A., & Steadman, H. J. (1988). Refining prevalence estimates of pathological gambling. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 502–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. West, M. O., & Prinz, R. J. (1986). Parental alcoholism and childhood psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 204–218. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.102.2.204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wiebe, J., Single, E., & Falkowski-Ham, A. (2001). Measuring gambling and problem gambling in Ontario. Toronto, ON: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse and Responsible Gambling Council (Ontario).Google Scholar
  43. Winters, K. C., Stinchfield, R. D., Botzet, A., & Anderson, N. (2002). A prospective study of youth gambling behaviors. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16, 3–9. doi: 10.1037/0893-164X.16.1.3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank Vitaro
    • 1
  • Brigitte Wanner
    • 1
  • Mara Brendgen
    • 2
  • Richard E. Tremblay
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Unit on Children’s Psychosocial MaladjustmentUniversity of MontrealMontrealCanada
  2. 2.University of Quebec in MontrealMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations