Advertisement

Journal of Family Violence

, Volume 30, Issue 2, pp 189–199 | Cite as

Partner Covictimization and Post-Breakup Stalking, Pursuit, and Violence: A Retrospective Study of College Women

  • Jennifer Katz
  • Hillary Rich
Original Article

Abstract

Covictimization involves experiencing both physical and sexual forms of intimate partner violence (IPV). It was hypothesized that covictimization during a dating relationship would predict stalking, ongoing pursuit, and continued partner violence after the relationship ended. Undergraduate women (N = 99) provided self-report data regarding experiences of IPV both during and after their most recent breakup and ongoing pursuit after the breakup. As expected, covictimized women reported elevated rates of post-breakup IPV, both physical and sexual. In addition, covictimized women reported elevated rates of ongoing pursuit involving intimidation/threats, but not involving approach/contact or surveillance. Ongoing intimidation/threat pursuit was also associated with post-breakup IPV, even after controlling for pre-breakup IPV. Covictimized women are at risk for continued intimidation and violence from ex-partners.

Keywords

Dating violence Relationship termination Physical assault Sexual coercion 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge Monica Schneider and Vanessa Tirone for their comments on this project.

References

  1. Abbey, A., BeShears, R., Clinton-Sherrod, A. M., & McAuslan, P. (2004). Similarities and differences in women’s sexual assault experiences based on tactics used by the perpetrator. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28(4), 323–332. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.2004.00149.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bell, M. E., Goodman, L. A., & Dutton, M. A. (2009). Variations in help-seeking, battered women’s relationship course, emotional well-being, and experiences of abuse over time. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 33(2), 149–162. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.2009.01485.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Black, M. C., Basile, K. C., Breiding, M. J., Smith, S. G., Walters, M. L., Merrick, M. T., Chen, J., & Stevens, M. R. (2011). The national intimate partner and sexual violence survey (NISVS): 2010 summary report. Atlanta: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
  4. Brownridge, D. A. (2006). Violence against women post-separation. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 11(5), 514–530. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2006.01.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brownridge, D. A., Chan, K. L., Murphy-Hierber, D., Ristock, J., Tiwari, A., Leung, W. C., & Santos, S. C. (2008). The elevated risk for non-lethal post-separation violence in Canada: a comparison of separated, divorced, and married women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23(1), 117–135. doi: 10.1177/0886260507307914.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burman, S. (2003). Battered women: stages of change and other treatment models that instigate and sustain leaving. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 3(1), 83–98. doi: 10.1093/brief-treatment/mhg004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chapin, J., & Coleman, G. (2012). Optimistic bias about dating/relationship violence among teens. Journal of Youth Studies, 15(5), 645–655. doi: 10.1080/13676261.2012.665440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coker, A. L., Smith, P. H., McKeown, R. E., & King, M. J. (2000). Frequency and correlates of intimate partner violence by type: physical, sexual, and psychological battering. American Journal of Public Health, 90(4), 553–559. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.90.4.553.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coleman, F. L. (1997). Stalking behavior and the cycle of domestic violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 12(3), 420–428. doi: 10.1177/088626097012003007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cupach, W. R., & Spitzberg, B. H. (2000). Obsessive relational intrusion: incidence, perceived severity, and coping. Violence and Victims, 15(4), 357–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Davis, K. E., & Frieze, I. H. (2000). Research on stalking: what do we know and where do we go? Violence and Victims, 15(4), 473–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Davis, K. E., Ace, A., & Andra, M. (2000). Stalking perpetrators and psychological maltreatment of partners: anger-jealousy, attachment insecurity, need for control, and break-up context. Violence and Victims, 15(4), 407–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. DeGue, S., & DiLillo, D. (2004). Understanding the perpetrators of nonphysical sexual coercion: characteristics of those who cross the line. Violence and Victims, 19(6), 673–688. doi: 10.1891/vivi.19.6.673.66345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dennison, S. M., & Stewart, A. (2006). Facing rejection: new relationships, broken relationships, shame, and stalking. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 50(3), 324–337. doi: 10.1177/0306624X05278077.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dietz, N. A., & Martin, P. A. (2007). Women who are stalked: questioning the fear standard. Violence Against Women, 13(7), 750–776. doi: 10.1177/1077801207302698.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dutton, L. B., & Winstead, B. A. (2006). Predicting unwanted pursuit: attachment, relationship satisfaction, relationship alternatives, and break-up distress. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 23(4), 565–586. doi: 10.1177/0265407506065984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fox, K. A., Gover, A. R., & Kaukinen, C. (2009). The effect of low self-control and childhood maltreatment on stalking victimization among men and women. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 34(3–4), 181–197. doi: 10.1007/s12103-009-9064-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goetz, A. T., & Shackelford, T. K. (2009). Sexual coercion in intimate relationships: a comparative analysis of the effects of women’s infidelity and men’s dominance and control. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38(2), 226–234. doi: 10.1007/s10508-008-9353-x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Graham-Kevan, N., & Archer, J. (2008). Does controlling behavior predict physical aggression and violence to partners? Journal of Family Violence, 23(7), 539–548. doi: 10.1007/s10896-008-9162-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Haugaard, J. L., & Seri, L. G. (2003). Stalking and other forms of intrusive contact after the dissolution of adolescent dating or romantic relationships. Violence and Victims, 18(3), 279–297. doi: 10.1891/vivi.2003.18.3.279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Johnson, D. M., & Zlotnick, C. (2006). A cognitive-behavioral treatment for battered women with PTSD in shelters: findings from a pilot study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(4), 559–564. doi: 10.1002/jts.20148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Katz, J., Moore, J. A., & May, P. (2008). Physical and sexual covictimization from dating partners: a distinct type of interpersonal abuse? Violence Against Women, 14(8), 961–980. doi: 10.1177/1077801208320905.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Katz, J., Tirone, V., & Schukrafft, M. (2012). Verbal sexual coercion in young adult heterosexual dating relationships. In P. Lundberg-Lund, K. Nadal, & M. Paludi (Eds.), Women and mental disorders (pp. 53–70). Santa Barbara: Praeger.Google Scholar
  24. Krebs, C., Breiding, M. J., Browne, A., & Warner, T. (2011). The association between different types of intimate partner violence experienced by women. Journal of Family Violence, 26(6), 487–500. doi: 10.1007/s10896-011-9383-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Palarea, R. E., Cohen, J., & Rohling, M. L. (2000). Breaking up is hard to do: unwanted pursuit behaviors following the dissolution of a romantic relationship. Violence and Victims, 15(1), 73–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Logan, T. K., & Cole, J. (2011). Exploring the intersection of partner stalking and sexual abuse. Violence Against Women, 17(7), 904–924. doi: 10.1177/1077801211412715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Logan, T. K., Shannon, L., & Cole, J. (2007). Stalking victimization in the context of intimate partner violence. Violence and Victims, 22(6), 669–683. doi: 10.1891/088667007782793147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McCann, J. T. (1998). Subtypes of stalking (obsessional following) in adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 21(6), 667–675. doi: 10.1006/jado.1998.0187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McEwan, T., Mullen, P. E., & Purcell, R. (2007). Identifying risk factors in stalking: a review of current research. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 30(1), 1–9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijlp.2006.03.005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Meloy, J. R. (1997). The clinical risk management of stalking: “someone is watching over me…”. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 51(2), 174–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Mullen, P. E., Pathé, M., & Purcell, R. (2009). Stalkers and their victims. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Patton, C. L., Nobles, M. R., & Fox, K. A. (2010). Look who's stalking: Obsessive pursuit and attachment theory. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(3), 282–290. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2010.02.013.
  33. Rennison, C. M., DeKeseredy, W. S., & Dragiewicz, M. (2012). Urban, suburban, and rural variations in separation/divorce rape/sexual assault: results from the national crime victimization survey. Feminist Criminology, 7(4), 282–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rhatigan, D. L., & Street, A. E. (2005). The impact of intimate partner violence on decisions to leave dating relationships: a test of the investment model. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20(12), 1580–1597. doi: 10.1177/0886260505280344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Roberts, K. A. (2005). Associated characteristics of stalking following the termination of romantic relationships. Applied Psychology in Criminal Justice, 1(1), 15–35.Google Scholar
  36. Sabina, C., & Straus, M. A. (2008). Polyvictimization by dating partners and mental health among U.S. college students. Violence and Victims, 23(6), 667–682. doi: 10.1891/0886-6708.23.6.667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sheridan, L., & Lyndon, A. E. (2012). The influence of prior relationship, gender, and fear on the consequences of stalking victimization. Sex Roles, 66(5–6), 340–350. doi: 10.1007/s11199-010-9889-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sinclair, H. C., & Frieze, I. H. (2000). Initial courtship behavior and stalking: where do we draw the line? Violence and Victims, 15(1), 23–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Smith, P. H., White, J. W., & Holland, J. L. (2003). A longitudinal perspective on dating violence among adolescent and college-age women. American Journal on Public Health, 93(7), 1104–1109. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.93.7.1104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Straus, M. A. (2004a). Prevalence of violence against dating partners by male and female university students worldwide. Violence Against Women, 10(7), 790–811. doi: 10.1177/1077801204265552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Straus, M. A. (2004b). Cross-cultural reliability and validity of the revised conflict tactics scales: a study of university students in 17 nations. Cross-Cultural Research, 38(4), 407–432. doi: 10.1177/1069397104269543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Boney-McCoy, S., & Sugarman, D. B. (1996). The revised conflict tactics scale (CTS2): development and preliminary psychometric data. Journal of Family Issues, 17(3), 283–316. doi: 10.1177/019251396017003001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Thomas, S. D. M., Purcell, R., Pathé, M., & Mullen, P. E. (2008). Harm associated with stalking victimization. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 42(9), 800–806. doi: 10.1080/00048670802277230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Thompson, C. M., Dennison, S. M., & Stewart, A. (2012). Are female stalkers more violent than male stalkers? Understanding gender differences in stalking violence using contemporary sociocultural beliefs. Sex Roles, 66(5–6), 351–365. doi: 10.1007/s11199-010-9911-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. (1998). Prevalence, incidence, and consequences of violence against women: findings from the national violence against women survey. Research in Brief Google Scholar
  46. Tjaden, P., Thoennes, N., & Allison, C. J. (2000). Comparing stalking victimization from legal and victim perspectives. Violence and Victims, 15(1), 7–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Vatnar, S. K. B., & Bjørkly, S. (2012). Does separation or divorce make any difference? An interactional perspective on intimate partner violence with focus on marital status. Journal of Family Violence, 27(1), 45–54. doi: 10.1007/s10896-011-9400-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Williams, S. L., & Frieze, I. H. (2005). Courtship behaviors, relationship violence, and breakup persistence in college men and women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29(3), 248–257. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.2005.00219.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologySUNY College at GeneseoGeneseoUSA

Personalised recommendations