Advertisement

Journal of Family Violence

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 151–159 | Cite as

Testing the Trauma Model of Violence

  • Daniel J. Neller
  • Robert L. Denney
  • Christina A. Pietz
  • R. Paul Thomlinson
Article

Abstract

The present study sought to explore the relationship between trauma and violence, as measured by the Traumatic Events Questionnaire and the Conflict Tactics Scale. Using Multiple Regression Analysis, several types of traumatic experiences were studied as predictors to violent behavior in 55 graduate students. Results suggest that trauma as a set, as well as being the victim of a violent crime, are significantly related to future violent behavior. However, no other individual predictor variable, including being the victim of childhood physical abuse, significantly predicted future violence. Implications of the findings are discussed.

Keywords

trauma abuse violence aggression 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aronson, E. (1999). The social animal, 8th edn., Worth Publishers, New York.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (1994). The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edn., Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychological Association, Ethics Committee (1992). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Am. Psychol. 47: 1597–1611.Google Scholar
  4. Archer, J. (1999). Assessment of the reliability of the Conflict Tactics Scales: A meta-analytic review. J. Interpers. Violence 14(12): 1263–1289.Google Scholar
  5. Bandura, A., Ross, D., and Ross, S. A. (1963). Imitation of film–mediated aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 66: 3–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Beck-Sander, A. (1995). Childhood abuse in adult offenders: The role of control in perpetuating cycles of abuse. J. Forensic Psychiatry 6(3): 486–498.Google Scholar
  7. Brain, P. F. (1998). The role of biological factors. In Van Hasselt, V. B., and Hersen, M. (eds.) Handbook of psychological approaches with violent offenders: Contemporary issues and strategies, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 83–92.Google Scholar
  8. Briere, J. (1996). A self-trauma model for treating adult survivors of severe child abuse. In Briere, J., Berliner, L., Bulkley, J. A., Jenny, C., and Reid, T. (eds.), The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 140–157.Google Scholar
  9. Burgess, A. W., Hartman, C. R., McCormack, A., and Grant, C. A. (1988). Child victim to juvenile victimizer: Treatment implications. Int. J. Fam. Psychiatry 9: 403–416.Google Scholar
  10. Burgess, A. W., and Holmstrom, L. L. (1979). Rape: Crisis and recovery. Bowie, Maryland.Google Scholar
  11. Carlson, B. E. (1991). Outcomes of physical abuse and observation of marital violence among adolescents in placement. J. Interpers. Violence 6(4): 526–534.Google Scholar
  12. De Bellis, M. D., and Putnam, F. W. (1994). The psychobiology of childhood maltreatment. Child Adol. Psy. Clinics N. Am. 3(4): 663–678.Google Scholar
  13. Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., and Pettit, G. S. (1990). Mechanisms in the cycle of violence. Science 250: 1678–1683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., and Bates, J. E. (1994). Effects of physical maltreatment on the development of peer relations. Dev. and Psychopath. 6: 43–55.Google Scholar
  15. Dutton, D. G. (1995). Trauma symptoms and PTSD profiles in perpetrators of intimate abuse. J. Trauma. Stress 8(2): 299–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Dutton, D. G., and Hart, S. G. (1992). Risk markers for family violence in a federally incarcerated population. Int. J. Law Psychiatry 15: 101–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Eichelman, B. (1992). Aggressive behavior, from laboratory to clinic: Quo vadit? Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 49: 488–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Elliott, F. A. (1992). Violence, the neurologic contribution: An overview. Arch. Neurol. 49: 595–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Elliott, F. A. (1998). A neurological perspective. In Van Hasselt, V. B., and Hersen, M. (eds.) Handbook of psychological approaches with violent offenders: Contemporary issues and strategies, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 417–437.Google Scholar
  20. Federal Bureau of Investigation (1995). Crime in the United States: Uniform crime reports. United States Department of Justice, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  21. Fergusson, D. M. and Lynskey, M. T. (1997). Physical punishment/maltreatment during childhood and adjustment in young adulthood. Child Abuse Negl. 21(7): 617–630.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Gacano, M., Meloy, J. R., and Heaven, T. (1990). A Rorschach investigation of narcissism and hysteria in antisocial personality disorder. J. Pers. Assess. 55: 270–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gacono, C. B. (1990). An empirical study of object relations and defensive operations in antisocial personality disorder. J. Pers. Assess. 54: 589–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Garza-Trevino, E. S. (1994). Neurobiological factors in aggressive behavior. Hosp. Commun. Psychiatry 45: 690–699.Google Scholar
  25. Goenjian, A. K., Najarian, L. M., Pynoos, R. S., Steinberg, A. M., Petrosian, P., Setrakyan, S., and Fairbanks, L. A. (1994). Posttraumatic stress reactions after single and double trauma. Acta Psych. Scand. 90: 214–221.Google Scholar
  26. Goldich, A., and Allen, J. G. (1998). Adolescents exposed to violence and abuse: A review of the group therapy literature with an emphasis on preventing trauma reenactment. J. Child and Adol. Group Th. 8(3): 135–155.Google Scholar
  27. Goodman, L. A., Dutton, M. A., and Bennett, L. (2000). Predicting repeat abuse among arrested batterers. J Interpers. Violence 15(1): 63–74.Google Scholar
  28. Haapasalo, J., and Pokela, E. (1999). Child-rearing and child abuse antecedents of criminality. AggressionViolent Behav. 4(1): 107–127.Google Scholar
  29. Herman, J. (1993). Trauma and recovery: The aftermath of violence from domestic abuse to political terror. Basic Books, NY.Google Scholar
  30. Hiley-Young, B., Blake, D. D., Abueg, F. R., Rozynko, V., and Gusman, F. D. (1995). Warzone violence in Vietnam: An examination of premilitary, military and postmilitary factors in PTSD in-patients. J. Trauma. Stress 8(1); 125–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Huesmann, L. R., and Eron, L. D. (1992). Childhood aggression and adult criminality. In McCord, J.(ed.), Facts, frameworks, and forecasts: Advances in criminological theory, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, Vol. 3, pp. 137–156.Google Scholar
  32. Katz, L. F., and Gottman, J. M. (1991). Marital discord and child outcomes: A social psychophysiological approach. In Garber, J., and Dodge, K. A. (eds.), The development of emotional regulation and dysregulation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 129–155.Google Scholar
  33. Kaufman, J., and Zigler, E. (1987). Do abusive children become abusive parents? Am. J. Orthopsy. 57(2): 186–192.Google Scholar
  34. Krystal, H. (1978). Trauma and affects. Psychoana. Stud. Child 33: 81–116.Google Scholar
  35. Kulka, R. A., Schlenger, W. E., Fairbank, J. A., Hough, R. L., Jordan, G. K., Marmar, C. R., and Weiss, D. S. (1990). Trauma and the Vietnam war generation, Brumner/Mazel, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Leibman, F. H. (1992). Childhood abandonment/adult rage: The root of violent criminal acts. Am. J. Forensic Psychol. 10(4): 57–64.Google Scholar
  37. Lerner, H. D. (1998). Psychodynamic theories. In Van Hasselt, V. B., and Hersen, M. (eds.) Handbook of psychological approaches with violent offenders: Contemporary issues and strategies. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 67–82.Google Scholar
  38. Lewis, D. O., Lovely, R., Yaeger, C., and Della Famina, D. (1989). Toward a theory of the genesis of violence: A follow-up study of delinquents. J. Am. Acad. Child and Adolesc. Psychiatry 28(3): 431–436.Google Scholar
  39. Lewis, D. O., Moy, E., Jackson, L. D., Aaronson, R., Restifo, N., Serra, S., and Simos, A. (1985). Biopsychosocial characteristics of children who later murder: A prospective study. Am. J. Psychiatry 142: 1161–1167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Lipschitz, D. S., Rasmusson, M. D., and Southwick, S. M. (1998). Childhood posttraumatic stress disorder: A review of neurobiologic sequelae. Psychiat. Ann. 28(8): 452–457.Google Scholar
  41. Marzuk, P. (1996). Violence, crime, and mental illness. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 53: 481–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. McCord, J. (1988). Parental behavior in the cycle of aggression. Psychiatry 51: 14–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. McFall, M., Fontana, A., Raskind, M., and Rosenheck, R. (1999). Analysis of violent behavior in Vietnam combat veteran psychiatric inpatients with posttraumatic stress disorder. J. Trauma. Stress 12(3): 501–517.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. McGee, R. A., Wolfe, D. A., and Wilson, S. K. (1997). Multiple treatment experiences and adolescent behavior problems: Adolescents’ perspectives. Dev. Psychopathol. 9: 131–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. McNeil, D. E., Binder, R. L., and Greenfield, T. K. (1988). Predictors of violence in civilly committed acute psychiatric patients. Am. J. Psychiatry 145(8): 965–970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Melton, G., Petrila, J., Poythress, N., and Slobogin, C. (1997). Psychological evaluations for the courts: A handbook for mental health professionals and lawyers, 2nd edn. Guilford, New York.Google Scholar
  47. Monahan, J., Steadman, H., Silver, E., Appelbaum, P., Robbins, P., Mulvey, E., Roth, L., Grisso, T., and Banks, S. (2001). Rethinking risk assessment: The MacArthur Study of Mental Disorder and Violence, Oxford New York.Google Scholar
  48. O’Keefe, M. (1997a). Incarcerated battered women: A comparison of battered women who killed their abusers and those incarcerated for other offenses. J. Fam. Violence 12(1): 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. O’Keefe, M. (1997b). Adolescents’ exposure to community and school violence: Prevalence and behavioral correlates. J. Adolesc. Health 20: 368–376.Google Scholar
  50. Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family process. Castalia, Eugene, OR.Google Scholar
  51. Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B., and Dishion, T. J. (1992). Antisocial boys. Castalia, Eugene, OR.Google Scholar
  52. Pomeroy, W. (1995). A working model for trauma: The relationship between trauma and violence. Pre- Perinat. Psychol. J. 10(2): 89–91.Google Scholar
  53. Porter, S. (1996). Without conscience or without active conscience? The etiology of psychopathy revisited. Aggression and Violent Behav. 1: 179–189.Google Scholar
  54. Rogosh, F. A., and Cicchetti, D. (1994). Illustrating the interface of peer and family relations through the study of child maltreatment. Soc. Dev. 3: 291–308.Google Scholar
  55. Rogosh, F. A., Cicchetti, D., and Aber, J. L. (1995). The role of child maltreatment in early deviations in cognitive and affective processing abilities and later peer relationship problems. Dev. Psychopathol. 7: 591–609.Google Scholar
  56. Shields, A. M., Cicchetti, D., and Ryan, R. M. (1994). The development of emotional and behavioral self-regulation and social competence among maltreated school-aged children. Dev. Psychopathol. 6: 57–75.Google Scholar
  57. Song, L., Singer, M. I., and Anglin, T. M. (1998). Violence exposure and emotional trauma as contributors to adolescents’ violent behaviors. Arch. Pediatr.Adolesc. Med. 152: 531–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Steinmetz, S. K. (1998). Sociological theories of violence. In Van Hasselt, V. B., and Hersen, M. (eds.) Handbook of psychological approaches with violent offenders: Contemporary issues and strategies, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers New York, pp. 13–38.Google Scholar
  59. Straus, M. A. (1979). Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: The Conflict Tactics (CT) Scales. J. Marriage Family 41: 75–88.Google Scholar
  60. Straus, M. A. (1991). Discipline and deviance: Physical punishment of children and violence and other crime in adulthood. Soc. Problems 38(2): 133–154.Google Scholar
  61. Straus, M. A., and Gelles, R. J. (1990). Physical violence in American families: Risk factors and adaptation to violence in 8,145 families. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick.Google Scholar
  62. Straus, M. A., and Hamby, S. (1996). The revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). J. Fam. Issues 17(3): 283–316.Google Scholar
  63. Swanson, J. W., Holzer, C. E., Ganju, V. K., and Juno, R. T. (1990). Violence and psychiatric disorder in the community: Evidence from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Surveys. Hos. Comm. Psychiatry 41: 761–770.Google Scholar
  64. Tabachnick, B. G., and Fidell, L. S. (1996). Using multivariate statistics, 3rd edn. HarperCollins College Publishers, New York.Google Scholar
  65. Teicher, M. H., Ito, Y., Glod, C., Schiffer, F., and Gelbard, H. (1996). Neurophysiological mechanisms of stress response in children. In Pfeffer, C. (ed.) Severe stress and mental disturbance in children, American Psychiatric Press, Inc. Washington, DC, pp. 59–84.Google Scholar
  66. van der Kolk, B. A., and van der Hart, O. (1989). Pierre Janet and the breakdown of adaptation in psychological trauma. Am. J. Psychiatry 146: 1530–1540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Van Hasselt, V. B., and Hersen, M. (1998). Handbook of psychological approaches with violent offenders: Contemporary issues and strategies. Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers, New York.Google Scholar
  68. Vrana, S., and Lauterbach, D. (1994). Prevalence of traumatic events and posttraumatic psychological symptoms in a nonclinical sample of college students. J. Trauma. Stress 7: 289–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Wolfe, D. A., Wekerle, C., Reitzel-Jaffe, D., and Lefebvre, L. (1998). Factors associated with abusive relationships among maltreated and nonmaltreated youth. Dev.Psychopathol. 10: 61–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel J. Neller
    • 1
    • 3
  • Robert L. Denney
    • 1
  • Christina A. Pietz
    • 1
  • R. Paul Thomlinson
    • 2
  1. 1.Forest Institute of Professional PsychologySpringfield
  2. 2.Burrell Behavioral HealthSpringfield
  3. 3.Springfield

Personalised recommendations