Synthesis of Graphene Quantum Dots Decorated With Se, Eu and Ag As Photosensitizer and Study of Their Potential to Use in Photodynamic Therapy


GQDs decorated with europium (Eu), silver (Ag) and selenium (Se) at molar ratios of 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% were produced for the first time at different temperatures of 180 °C, 200 °C and 220 °C. Surface passivation was carried out with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to increase the intensity of photoluminescence (PL) of the produced samples. The prepared quantum dots were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), PL and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. GQDs synthesized at 180 °C and decorated with Se (0.3%) had maximum PL intensity along with long lasted afterglow over 90 min compared with other samples. Excitation wavelength at 360 nm produced maximum emission at 600–900 nm and resulted in high singlet oxygen (1O 2) generation which makes it a good candidate for photodynamic therapy applications.

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All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article.


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The authors are grateful to research council of the University of Kashan for providing financial support to undertake this work (Grant number 785216).


This work has been supported by research council, University of Kashan, grant number 785216.

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M. Zahedifar and M. Darroudi conceived of the presented idea and supervised the project. M. Roeinfard and A. Khorsand Zak fabricated the samples. E. Sadeghi and M. Roeinfard carried out the characterization tests and studied the optical properties to verify the applicability of the produced samples in photodynamic therapy. M. Zahedifar wrote the manuscript with support from E. Sadeghi.

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Correspondence to M. Zahedifar.

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Roeinfard, M., Zahedifar, M., Darroudi, M. et al. Synthesis of Graphene Quantum Dots Decorated With Se, Eu and Ag As Photosensitizer and Study of Their Potential to Use in Photodynamic Therapy. J Fluoresc 31, 551–557 (2021).

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  • Graphene quantum dot
  • Photoluminescence
  • Afterglow
  • Polyethylene glycol
  • Photodynamic therapy