Solvatochromic and Fluorescence Behavior of Sulfisoxazole
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The Fluorescence spectroscopic and solvatochromic behavior of Sulfisoxazole, a sulfa drug with antimicrobial activities, in various pure solvents of different polarity and hydrogen bonding capability is reported. The fluorescence emission spectrum of sulfisoxazole was found to be solvent polarity dependent, where a notable red shift in emission maximum was observed with increasing solvent polarity as well as hydrogen bonding capability. The effects of the latter two solvent parameters were quantitatively investigated using the methods of Lippert–Mataga and solvatochromic comparison method (SCM) that is based on the Kamlet-Taft equation. Particularly, the Lippert–Mataga method was applied to estimate the dipole moment of the excited state (μe) upon plotting Stokes shift versus solvent polarizability (Δf), where a value of 11.54 Debye was obtained. On the other hand, applying the multiple regression analysis to the SCM method revealed that solvent polarizability (π*) and hydrogen-bond donor capability (α) approximately equally stabilize sulfisoxazole in the excited state with minor destabilization contribution by the hydrogen-bond acceptor capability (β). These findings revealed that the excited state of sulfisoxazole is stabilized by polar solvents, indicating that this drug molecules exhibit larger dipole moment in the excited state than in the ground state, which in turn implies that a potential intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) occurs after excitation.
KeywordsFluorescence spectroscopy Solvatochromism Lippert-Mataga method Solvatochromic comparison method (SCM) Hydrogen bonding Charge transfer Pharmaceutical drug Photophysical properties
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