Journal of Fluorescence

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 865–871 | Cite as

The Role of Pyranine in Characterization of PAAm-κC Composites by Using Fluorescence Technique

Original Paper


Polyacrylamide (PAAm) doped by κ-carrageenan (κC) gels were prepared with various amounts of κC varying in the range between 0 wt.% and 3 wt.%. Steady-state fluorescence (SSF) technique was employed for studying sol-gel transition and swelling of PAAm-κC composite gels which were prepared by free-radical crosslinking copolymerization. Pyranine was introduced as a fluorescence probe. Pyranine molecules start to bind to acrylamide polymer chains upon the initiation of the polymerization, thus the spectra of the bonded pyranines shift to the shorter wavelengths. Fluorescence spectra from the bonded pyranines allow one to monitor the sol-gel transition and to test the universality of the sol-gel transition as a function of some kinetic parameters like polymer concentration. Observations around the gel point, t c for PAAm-κC composite gels showed that the gel fraction exponent β obeyed the percolation result for low κC (<2.0 wt. %) however classical results were produced at higher κC (>2.0 wt.%). On the other hand, fluorescence intensity of pyranine was measured during in situ swelling process at various amounts of κC and it was observed that fluorescence intensity values decreased as swelling is proceeded. Li-Tanaka equation was used to determine the swelling time constants, τ and cooperative diffusion coefficients, D.


Steady state fluorescence Pyranine Polyacrylamide κ- carragenan 


  1. 1.
    Tanaka T (1978) Collapse of gels and the critical endpoint. Phys Rev Lett 40(12):820–823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Meena R, Prasad K, Mehta G, Siddhanta AK (2006) Synthesis of the Copolymer hydrogel κ-carrageenan-graft-PAAm: evaluation of its absorbent and Adhesive properties. J App Poly Sci 102(6):5144–5152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Falshaw R, Bixler H, Johndro K (2001) Structure and performance of commercial kappa-2 carrageenan extracts I. Structure analysis. Food Hydrocoll 15(4–6):441–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barrow GM (1962) Introduction to molecular spectroscopy. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Birks JB (1965) Photophysics of aromatic molecules. Willey, (Interscience), LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jager WF, Volkers AA, Neckers DC (1995) Solvatochromic fluorescent probes for monitoring the photopolymerization of dimethacrylates. Macromolecules 28(24):8153–8158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schaeken TC, Warman JM (1995) Radiation-induced polymerization of a mono- and diacrylate studied using a fluorescent molecular probe. J Phys Chem 99(16):6145–6151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Miller KE, Krueger RH, Torkelson JM (1995) Mobility-sensitive fluorescence probes for quantitative monitoring of water sorption and diffusion in polymer coatings. J Polym Sci B Polym Phys 33(17):2343–2349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vatanparast R, Li S, Hakala K, Lemmetyinen H (2000) Monitoring of curing of polyurethane polymers with fluorescence method. Macromolecules 33(2):438–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Erçelen Ş, Klymchenko AS, Demchenko AP (2000) Ultrasensitive fluorescent probe for the hydrophobic range of solvent polarities. Anal Chim Acta 464(2):273–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jager WF, Sarker AM, Neckers DC (1999) Functionalized 4-(Dialkylamino)-4′-nitrostilbenes as reactive fluorescent probes for monitoring the photoinitiated polymerization of MMA. Macromolecules 32(26):8791–8799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pekcan Ö, Yilmaz Y, Okay O (1997) Real time monitoring of polymerization rate of methyl methacrylate using fluorescence probe. Polymer 38(7):1693–1698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pekcan Ö, Yilmaz Y, Okay O (1994) Fluorescence technique for studying the sol-gel transition in the free-radical crosslinking copolymerization of methyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. Chem Phys Lett 229(4–5):537–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aktas DK, Evingür GA, Pekcan Ö (2007) Study on swelling of hydrogels (PAAm) at various temperatures by using fluorescence technique. J Mat Sci 42(20):8481–8488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yilmaz Y, Uysal N, Gelir A, Guney O, Aktaş DK, Gogebakan S, Oner A (2009) Elucidation of multiple- point interactions of pyranine fluoroprobe during the gelation. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Mol Biomolecular Spect 72(2):332–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Flory PJ (1941) Molecular size distribution in three dimensional polymers. I. Gelation. J Am Chem Soc 63(11):3083–3090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stockmayer WH (1943) Theory of molecular size distribution and gel formation in branched- chain polymers. J Chem Phys 11(2):45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stauffer D, Coniglio A, Adam M (1982) Gelation and critical phenomena. Adv Polym Sci 44:103–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stauffer D (1985) Introduction to percolation theory. Taylor and Francis, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    de Gennes PG (1988) Scaling concepts in polymer physics. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hermann HJ (1986) Geometrical cluster growth models and kinetic gelation. Phys Rep 136(3):153–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stauffer D, Aharony A (1994) Introduction to percolation theory, 2nd edn. Taylor and Francis, London (second printing)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yilmaz Y, Erzan A, Pekcan Ö (1998) Critical exponents and fractal dimension at the sol- gel phase transition via in situ fluorescence experiments. Phys Rev E 58(6):7487–7491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yilmaz Y, Erzan A, Pekcan Ö (2002) Slow Release percolate near glass transition. Euro Phys J E: Soft Matter and Biological Physics 9(2):135–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Li Y, Tanaka T (1990) Kinetics of swelling and shrinking of gels. J Chem Phys 92(2):1365–1371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tanaka T, Sato E, Hirakowa Y, Hirotsu S, Peetermans J (1985) Critical kinetics of volume phase transition of gels. Phys Rev Lett 55(22):2455–2458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shibayama M, Tanaka T (1993) Volume phase transition and related phenomena of polymer gels. Adv Polym Sci 109:1–62Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kara S, Tamerler C, Arda E, Pekcan Ö (2003) Photon transmission study on swelling of k- carrageenan gels prepared in various concentrations. Int J Bio Macro 33:235–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Science and Letters, Physics DepartmentIstanbul Technical UniversityMaslak- IstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Kadir Has UniversityCibali- IstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations