Journal of Fluorescence

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 55–65 | Cite as

A Gas Diffusion Technique Coupled with Flow Injection Systems. Optimization of the Process in its Application to the Fluorimetric Determination of Ammonium in Water Samples

  • María-Jesús Almendral-ParraEmail author
  • Ángel Alonso-Mateos
  • María-Socorro Fuentes-Prieto
Original Paper


A novel flow injection-gas-diffusion (GD-FI) system has been developed for the on-line analysis of ammonium ion in waters with fluorimetric detection, using an acceptor solution containing the Eosin-Bluish (EB) acid-base indicator. This, together with optimization of the process of gas transfer through the membrane, increases the sensitivity of the method to a considerable extent. Under optimum conditions, it is possible to determine the analyte within the 0.02–1.5 mg l-1 range, with a limit of detection of 5 µg l-1 and relative standard deviations (n = 12, [NH 4 + ] = 50 µg l-1 and 0.05 µg l-1) of 3.4% and 3.0% respectively. The determination rate was 15 samples per hour.


Gas-diffusion Flow injection analysis Ammonium determination Eosin bluish Water On-line process analysis 


  1. 1.
    Ruzicka J, Hansen E (1988) Flow Injection Analysis, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    George BJ, Pereira N, Massum Mosharrof Al, Kolev SD, Ashokkumar M (2008) Sensitivity enhancement in membrane separation flow injection analysis by ultrasond. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 15:151–156CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Van der Linden WE (1983) Membrane separation in flow injection analysis. Gass diffusion. Anal. Chim. Acta 151:359–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Van der Linden WE (1983) The optimum composition of pH-sensitive acceptor solutions for membrane separation in flow injection. Anal. Chim. Acta 273:277Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Smith KJ, Pacey GE (1993) Reverse dual phase gas diffusion flow injection analysis. Talanta 40:1961–1966CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baadenhuijsen H, Seuren-Jacobs HEH (1979) Determination of total CO2 in plasma by automated flow-injection analysis. Clin. Chem. 25:443–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kolev SD, Van der Linden WE (1991) Laminar dispersion in parallel plate sections of flow systems used in analytical chemistry and chemical engineering. Anal. Chim. Acta 247:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kolev SD, Van der Linden WE (1992) Limits of mass transfer in parallel-plate dialysers. Anal. Chim. Acta 256:301–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kolev SD, Van der Linden WE (1992) Influence of the main parameters of a parallel-plate dialyser under laminar flow conditions. Anal. Chim. Acta 257:317–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kolev SD, Van der Linden WE (1992) Analysis of transient laminar mass transfer in a parallel-plate dialyser. Anal. Chim. Acta 257:331–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Van Staden JF, Taljaard RE (1997) Determination of ammonia in water and industrial effluent streams with the indophenol blue method using sequential injection analysis. Anal. Chim. Acta 344:281–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Andrew KN, Worsfold PJ, Comber M (1995) On-line flow injection monitoring of ammonia in industrial liquid effluents. Anal. Chim. Acta 314:33–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gardiner J, Mance G, UK Water quality Standards Arising from EEC Directives, WRC Technical Report TR 204, MedMenham, 1984Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Valcarcel M, Luque de Castro MD (1987) Flow-injection Analysis. Principles and Applications. Ellis Horwood, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Oms MT, Cerdá A, Cladera A, Cerdá V, Forteza R (1996) Gas diffusion techniques coupled sequential injection analysis for selective determination of ammonium. Anal. Chim. Acta 318:251–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Xiao-Li Su, Nie Li-Hua, Yao S-Z (1997) Determination of ammonium in Kjeldahl digests by gas-diffusion flow-injection analysis with a bulk acoustic wave-impedance sensor. Talanta 44:2121–2128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shen H, Cardwell TJ, Cattrall RW (1998) Determination of ammonia in wastewaters containing high concentrations of surfactants by flow injection potentiometry with on-line sample clean-up. Anal. Chim. Acta 367:193–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hassan SS, Marei SA, Badr IH, Arida HA (2001) Novel solid-state ammonium ion potentiometric sensor based on a zirconium titanium phosphate ion exchanger. Anal. Chim. Acta 427:21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • María-Jesús Almendral-Parra
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ángel Alonso-Mateos
    • 1
  • María-Socorro Fuentes-Prieto
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Química Analítica, Nutrición y BromatologíaUniversity of SalamancaSalamancaSpain

Personalised recommendations