Journal of Fluorescence

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 909–917 | Cite as

Simultaneous Determination of Naproxen and Diflunisal using Synchronous Luminescence Spectrometry

  • Hadir M. Maher
Original Paper


Binary mixtures of naproxen and diflunisal can be resolved by using zero-crossing first derivative emission spectrofluorimetry, first derivative constant wavelength synchronous luminescence spectrometry and first derivative constant energy synchronous luminescence spectrometry. These methods do not require any previous separation steps. The lowest quantitation limits for both drugs were obtained with first derivative constant wavelength synchronous luminescence spectrometry (0.002 and 0.015 μg ml−1 for naproxen and diflunisal, respectively). The measurements were performed in 40% methanolic aqueous medium at pH 8.0 provided by adding 0.02 M phosphate buffer solution. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of naproxen and diflunisal in pharmaceuticals and human serum samples with high precision and accuracy. Linearity, accuracy, precision, limits of detection, limits of quantitation, and other aspects of analytical validation are included in the text.


First derivative emission spectrofluorimetry First derivative synchronous luminescence spectrometry Zero-crossing technique-Naproxen and diflunisal Pharmaceuticals Human serum 


  1. 1.
    Murillo Pulgarin JA, Alanon Molina A (1994) Determination of nafcillin and methicillin by different spectrofluorimetric techniques. Talanta 41(1):21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berzas Nevado JJ, Murillo Pulgarin JA, Gomez Laguna MA (1995) Simultaneous determination of pyridoxal and pyridoxamine by different spectrofluorimetric techniques. Talanta 42(1):129–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vo-Dinh T (1982) Synchronous luminescence spectroscopy: methodology and applicability. Appl Spectrosc 36:576–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sikorska E, Gorecki T, Khmelinskii IV, Sikorski M, Koziol J (2005) Classification of edible oils using synchronous scanning fluorescence spectroscopy. Food Chem 89(2):217–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jonsson G, Sundt RC, Aas E, Beyer J (2004) An evaluation of two fluorescence screening methods for the determination of chrysene metabolites in fish bile. Chemosphere 56(1):81–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ortega Algar S, Ramos-Martos N, Molina-Diaz A (2003) A flow-through fluorimetric sensing device for determination of alpha- and beta-naphthol mixtures using a partial least-squares multivariate calibration approach. Talanta 2–3:313–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lin DL, He LF, Li YQ (2004) Rapid and simultaneous determination of coproporphyrin and protoporphyrin in faeces by derivative matrix isopotential synchronous fluorescence spectrometry. Clin Chem 50(10):1797–1803PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Molinoff PB, Rudden RW (1996) Goodman and Gilman’s, the pharmacological basis of therapeutics, 9th edn. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 629–631, 638–640Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Giachetti C, Canali S, Zanolo G (1983) Separation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents by high-resolution gas chromatography. Preliminary trials to perform pharmacokinetic studies. J Chromatogr 279:587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Maurer HH, Tauvel FX, Kraemer T (2001) Screening procedure for detection of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and their metabolites in urine as part of a systematic toxicological analysis procedure for acidic drugs and poisons by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extractive methylation. J Anal Toxicol 25(4):237–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Streete PJ (1989) Rapid high-performance liquid-chromatographic methods for the determination of overdose concentrations of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in plasma or serum. J Chromatogr Biomed Appl 87:179–193Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kazemifard AG, Moore DE (1990) Liquid chromatography with amperometric detection for the determination of non-sterodial anti-inflammatory drugs in plasma. J Chromatogr Biomed Appl 98:125–132Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Macia A, Borrull F, Calull M, Aguilar C (2007) Capillary electrophoresis for the analysis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Trends Anal Chem 26(2):133–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bebawy LI, El-Kousy NM (1999) Simultaneous determination of some multicomponent dosage forms by quantitative thin-layer chromatography densitometric method. J Pharm Biomed Anal 20(4):663–670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wu D (1999) Determination of the content of naproxen in capsules by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Yaowu Fenxi Zazhi 19(1):62–63Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Velaz I, Sanchez M, Zornoza A, Goyenechea N (1999) Application of fluorimetry to the analysis of naproxen and its complexation with modified beta-cyclodextrins. Biomed Chromatogr 13(2):155–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Abdel Hamid ME, Najib NM, Suleiman MS, El Sayed YM (1987) Differential spectrophotometric, fluorimetric and high-performance liquid-chromatographic determination of diflunisal and its tablets. Analyst 112(11):1527–1530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zornoza A, Sanchez M, Velaz I, Fernandez L (1999) Diflunisal and its complexation with cyclodextrins. A fluorimetric study. Biomed Chromatogr 13(12):111–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ioannou PC, Lianidou ES, Konstantianos DG (1995) Simple, rapid and sensitive spectrofluorimetric determination of diflunisal in serum and urine based on its ternary complex with terbium and EDTA. Anal Chim Acta 300(1–3):237–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Konstantianos DG, Ioannou PC (1996) Second-derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for the simultaneous determination of naproxen and salicylic acid. Analyst 121:909–912PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Munoz de la Pena A, Moreno MD, Duran-Meras I, Salinas F (1996) Synchronous fluorimetric determination of salicylic acid and diflunisal in human serum using partial least-squares calibration. Talanta 43(8):1349–1356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Murillo Pulgarín JA, Alañón Molina A, Fernández López P, Sánchez-Ferrer Robles I (2007) Direct determination of closely overlapping drug mixtures of diflunisal and salicylic acid in serum by means of derivative matrix isopotential synchronous fluorescence spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 583:55–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Perez Ruiz T, Martinez Lozano C, Tomas V, Carpena J (1998) Sensitive synchronous spectrofluorimetric methods for the determination of naproxen and diflunisal in serum. Fresenius J Anal Chem 361(5):492–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Armitage P, Berry G (1994) Statistical methods in medical research, 3rd edn. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 283–285Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Miller JN (1991) Basic statistical methods for analytical chemistry. II., Calibration and regression methods. Analyst 116(1):3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Miller JN, Miller JC (2000) Statistics and chemometrics for analytical chemistry, 4th edn. Prentice Hall, Great Britain, pp 57–64, 77, 78Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Moffat AC, Osselton MD, Widdop B (2004) Clarke’s analysis of drugs and poisons, 3rd edn. Pharmaceutical Press, London, pp 915–916, 1319–1320Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical ChemistryUniversity of Alexandria, El-MessalahAlexandriaEgypt

Personalised recommendations