Journal of Fusion Energy

, Volume 31, Issue 6, pp 595–602 | Cite as

Measurement of the Energy of Nitrogen Ions Produced in Filippov Type Plasma Focus Used for the Nitriding of Titanium

  • E. Ghareshabani
  • M. A. Mohammadi
Original Research


In this paper the nitrogen ion properties (maximum energy, current density and the most probable energy) are investigated by using Faraday cup in a time of flight method. These ions are produced in a Filippov type plasma focus (Sahand Facility) device and the Faraday cup was placed in a distance range of 18–24 cm from the top of the anode. Maximum and minimum most probable ion energies are 76 and 8.5 keV for the distance range of 18 and 24 cm, respectively. The displacement from 18 to 24 cm at top of the anode the ion current density varies from 4.5 × 106 to 3.2 × 105 (A m−2). For the investigation of the effect of ions bombardment of materials at different positions, at the optimum working conditions of 14 kV as a working voltage, and 0.25 Torr as a gas pressure, titanium samples are placed in a distance of 21, 22, 23 and 24 cm from the top of the anode (θ = 0) and each sample is put under irradiation for 30 plasma shots. The structure of the nitrided surfaces and their morphologies are characterized by X-ray diffractometry and by scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The average crystallite size deduced for (200) and (222) planes of TiN deposited with 30 shots in different distances are estimate to be from ~13 to ~38 nm.


Faraday cup Titanium nitride Filippov type plasma focus 


  1. 1.
    J.W. Mather, Phys. Fluids 7, 5 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    N.V. Filippov, T.I. Filippova, V.P. Vinogradov, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 2, 577 (1962)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Zakaullah, I. Ahmad, A. Omar, G. Murtaza, M.M. Beg, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 5, 544 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S.R. Mohanty, M.P. Srivastava, R.S. Rawat, Phys. Lett. A 234, 472 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Kelly, A. Lepone, A. Marquez, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 25, 455 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    C.S. Wong, P. Choi, W.S. Leong, J. Singh, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3943 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. Kelly et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 113 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Sadowski, E.S. Sadowski, J. Baranowski, J. Zebrowski, H. Kelly, A. Lepone, A. Marquez, M. Milanese, R. Moroso, J. Pouzor, Nukleonika 45, 179 (2000)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    W. Stygar, G. Gerdin, F. Venneri, J. Mandrekas, Nucl. Fusion 22, 116 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.N. Feugeas, E. Llonch, C.O. de Gonzalez, G. Galambos, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2648 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R.S. Rawat, M.P. Srivastava, S. Tandon, A. Mansingth, Phys. Rev. B 47, 4858 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    K.A. Muller, M. BurKard, Phys. Rev. B 19, 3593 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    C.R. Kant, M.P. Srivastava, R.S. Rawat, Phys. Lett. A 226, 212 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    R.S. Rawat, P. Lee, T. White, L. Ying, S. Lee, Surf. Coat. Technol. 138, 159 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Gupta, M.P. Srivastava, Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 13, 371 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    R.S. Rawat, P. Lee, T. White, S. Lee, in 27th EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Budapest, 12–16 June 2000 ECA, vol. 24 B (2000), p. 484Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Sumini, D. Mostacci, F. Rocchi, M. Frignani, A. Tartari, E. Angeli, D. Galaverni, U. Coli, B. Ascione, G. Cucchi, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 562, 1068 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. Buhl, H.K. Pulker, E. Moll, Thin Solid Films 80, 265 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Wittmer, B. Studer, H. Melchiar, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 5722 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. Zega, M. Kornmann, J. Amiguet, Thin Solid Films 54, 577 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Mumtaz, W.H. Class, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20(3), 345 (1982)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    E. Valkonen, T. Karlsson, B. Karlsson, B.O. Hojansson, Proc. SPIE Int. Tech. Conf. 401, 41 (1983)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    M. Ohring, The Materials Science of Thin Films (Academic, New York, 1992)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    H. Yumoto, K. Watanabe, K. Akashi, N. Igata, Appl. Surf. Sci. 48, 173 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M.A. Mohammadi, S. Sobhanian, R.S. Rawat, Phys. Lett. A 375, 3002 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    S.K. Karkari, S. Mukherjee, P.I. John, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 93 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J.S. Pearlman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 20 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    S.R. Mohanty, H. Bhuyan, N.K. Neog, R.K. Rout, E. Hotta, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5199 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    G. Modreanu, N.B. Mandache, A.M. Pointu, M. Ganciu, I.I. Popescu, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 33, 819 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    K.L. Brown, G.W. Tautfest, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 27, 696 (1956)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    N. Sclater, Wire & Cable for Electronics (McGraw-Hill, 1991), p. 128Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    W.H. Bostick, H. Kilic, V. Nardi, C.W. Powell, Nucl. Fusion 33, 413–420 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    G. Gerdin, W. Stygar, F. Venneri, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3269 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    H. H. Andersen, J. F. Ziegler, Hydrogen Stopping Power and Ranges in All Elements. Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter, vol. 3 (Pergamon, New York, 1977)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    B. Rossi, K. Greisen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 13, 240 (1941)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    B. D. Cullity, Elements of X-ray Diffraction (Addision-Wesley, Palo Alto, 1978), p. 102Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    V.N. Gurarie, P.H. Otsuka, D.N. Jamieson, S. Prawer, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 242, 421 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of PhysicsSahand University of TechnologyTabrizIran
  2. 2.Department of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Faculty of PhysicsUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran
  3. 3.Research Institute for Applied Physics and AstronomyUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran

Personalised recommendations