Journal of Fusion Energy

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 225–228 | Cite as

Innovative Confinement Concepts (ICC) Program in Fusion Energy Sciences

  • S. Woodruff
Original Paper


During the 1990s the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE) restructured and adopted joint goals of science and performance. Many small new experiments were commissioned towards the end of the 1990s and a new program was started: the Innovative Confinement Concepts (ICC) program and has continued into the ITER era. The most basic premise of the ICC Program is to support continued concept innovation in the hunt for an economically attractive fusion reactor while supporting innovation in mainline concepts. This paper summarizes the ICC Program, ICC experiments and outlines some future directions.


Innovative confinement concepts Concept exploration Proof of principle 



Many thanks for useful comments from E. Bickford Hooper, Masayoshi Nagata, and Brett Chapman. Thanks also to the ICC organizing committee for reviewing the first draft of this paper. This paper will appear in Japanese in the Journal of the Japanese Society of Plasma Science and Nuclear Fusion Research (JSPF) with many other papers under the broad title title: “Prospects of Research on Innovative Confinement Concepts at Universities (in Japan) in ITER Era for Fusion Energy Science”


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Woodruff Scientific, IncSeattleUSA

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