Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology

, Volume 41, Issue 5, pp 561–569 | Cite as

Projections of Olfactory Bulbs and Non-Olfactory Telencephalic Structures in Amygdaloid Complex of the Turtle Testudo horsfieldi: A Study Using Anterograde Tracer Technique

  • D. D. Chkheidze
  • M. G. Belekhova
Morphological Bases For Evolution of Functions


To confirm the discrete character of projections of telencephalic olfactory and non-olfactory structures to the amygdaloid complex (AC) in the terrestrial turtle Testudo horsfieldi, a study was performed by the method of anterograde axonal transport of tracers (HRP, BDA). After a massive injection of the tracers into the main and accessory olfactory bulb, a dense accumulation of labeled fibers and terminals was found in ventral part of AC in the neuropil zones of nbam (J) and ncoam and very scanty—in nmam and ncam. After a massive injection of the tracers into non-olfactory telencephalic structures including dorsal cortex, pallidal enlargement, and ADVR, a very dense terminal field was observed in the dorsal AC part and a less dense one, with predominance of labeled fibers, in its ventral part. Local administration of the tracers separately into the dorsolateral (visual area) and the ventromedial (auditory-somatic area) parts of the ADVR allowed revealing discrete projections, respectively, to the laterocentral and mediocentral areas of the dorsal AC part with a relative overlapping in the central AC area. In all experiments, retrogradely labeled neurons in AC were also observed in zones of the corresponding bulbar and rostrotelencephalic projections. Thus, it has been shown that in the turtle AC there exist not only separation of direct olfactory and non-olfactory projections, but also discrete projections of different sensory areas of ADVR. Reciprocity of these connections is also confirmed. Organization of afferent olfactory and non-olfactory telencephalic connections in AC is similar in reptiles and in mammals.


Olfactory Bulb Axonal Transport Visual Area Ventral Part Sensory Area 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Amygdaloid complex


anterior part of the dorsal ventricular ridge


biotinylated dextran-amine


horseradish peroxidase


olfactory bulb


posterior part of the dorsal ventricular ridge


amygdala dorsalis


amygdala ventralis


cortex dorsalis


cortex hippocampalis


cortex pyriformis


lamina cellularis mitralis


lamina glomerularis


lamina granularis interna

nbam (J)

n. basalis amygdalaris (by Johnston)


n. centralis amygdalaris


n. corticalis amygdalaris


n. medialis amygdalaris


n. tractus olphactorius lateralis


pallial thickening


stria medullaris




tractus olfactorius lateralis


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Copyright information

© MAIK "Nauka/Interperiodica" 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. D. Chkheidze
    • 1
  • M. G. Belekhova
    • 1
  1. 1.Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and BiochemistryRussian Academy of SciencesSt. PetersburgRussia

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