Morphogens of hydra Hydra sp.

  • A. S. Kukalev


Characteristics and probable functions of morphogens of the freshwater polyp, hydra Hydra sp., are considered in the review.


Probable Function Freshwater Polyp 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bosch, T.C.G., Hydra, Cellular and Molecular Basis of Regeneration: From Invertebrates to Humans, Ferretti, P., Ed., 1998.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gierer, A., Hydra as a Model for the Development of Biological Form, Sci. Amer., 1974, vol. 231, no.6, pp. 44–54.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gierer, A. and Meinhardt, H., A Theory of Biological Pattern Formation, Kybernetik, 1972, vol. 12, pp. 30–39.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Berking, S., Pattern Formation on Hydrozoa, Naturwissensch., 1997, vol. 84, pp. 381–388.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Berking, S., Hydrozoa Metamorphosis and Pattern Formation, Curr. Topics Dev. Biol., 1998, vol. 38, pp. 81–131.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rybakin, V.S., Morphogenesis and Formation of Pattern in Hydra. I. Distribution of Morphogenetic Potential, Tsitologiya, 2000, vol. 42, pp. 937–343.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Murtha, M.T., Leckman, J.F., and Ruddle, F.H., Detection of Homeobox Genes in Development and Evolution, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., 1991, vol. 88, pp. 10711–10715.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gauchat, D., Mazet, F., Berney, C., Schummer, M., Kreger, S., Pawlowski, J., and Galliot, B., Evolution of Antp-Class Genes and Differential Expression of Hydra Hox/paraHox Genes in Anterior Patterning, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., 2000, vol. 97, pp. 4493–4498.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schummer, M., Scheurlen, I., Schaller, G., and Galliot, B., HOM/HOX Homeobox Genes are Present in Hydra (Chlorohydra viridissima) and are Differentially Expressed during Regeneration, EMBO J., 1992, vol. 11, pp. 1815–1823.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shenk, M.A., Gee, L., Steele, R.E., and Bode, H.R., Expression of Cnox-2, a HOM/HOX gene, is Suppressed during Head Formation in Hydra, Dev. Biol., 1993, vol. 160, pp. 108–118.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Miller, D.J. and Miles, A., Homeobox Genes and the Zootype, Nature, 1993, vol. 365, pp. 215–216.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cartwright, P. and Buss, L.W., Colony Integration and the Expression of the Hox Gene, Cnox-2, in Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa), J. Exp. Zool., 1999, vol. 285, pp. 57–62.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kuhn, K., Streit, B., and Schierwater, B., Isolation of Hox Genes from the Scyphozoan Cassiopeia xamachana: Implications for the Early Evolution of Hox Genes, J. Exp. Zool., 1999, vol. 285, p. 63.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Naito, M., Ishiguro, H., Fujisawa, T., and Kurosawa, Y., Presence of Eight Distinct Homeobox Containing Genes in Cnidarians, FEBS Lett., 1993, vol. 333, pp. 271–274.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nirenberg, M., Nakayama, K., Nakayama, N., Kirn, Y., Mellerick, D., Wang, L.H., Webber, K.O., and Lad, R., The NK Homeobox Gene and the Early Development of the Central Nervous System of Drosophila, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1995, vol. 30, pp. 224–242.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Harvey, R.P., NK-2 Homeobox Genes and Heart Development, Dev. Biol., 1996, vol. 178, pp. 203–216.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Grens, A., Gee, L., Fisher, D.A., and Bode, H.R., CnNK-2, an NK-2 Homeobox Gene, Has a Role in Patterning the Basal End of the Axis in Hydra, Dev. Biol., 1996, vol. 180, pp. 473–488.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Muller, W.A., Diacylglycerol-Induced Multihead Formation in Hydra, Development, 1989, vol. 105, pp. 309–316.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Finkelstein, R. and Boncinelli, E., From Fly to Mammalian Forebrain: the Story of otd and Otx, Trends Genet., 1994, vol. 10, pp. 310–315.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Smith, K.M., Gee, L., Blitz, I.L., and Boe, H.R., CnOtx, a Member of the otx Gene Family, Has a Role in Cell Movement in Hydra, Dev. Biol., 1999, vol. 212, pp. 392–404.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Broun, M., Sokol, S., and Bode, H.R., Cngsc, a Homologue of goosecoid, Participates in the Patterning of the Head, and Is Expressed in the Organizer Region of Hydra, Development, 1999, vol. 126, p. 5245.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Leontovich, A.A., Zhang, J., Shimokowa, K., Nagase, H., and Sarras, M.P., A Novel Hydra Matrix Metalloproteinase (HMMP) Functions in Extracellular Matrix Degradation, Morphogenesis and the Maintenance of Differentiated Cells in the Foot Process, Development, 2000, vol. 127, pp. 907–920.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yan, L., Fei, K., Zhang, J., Dexter, S., and Sarras, M.P., Identification and Characterization of Hydra Metalloproteinase 2 (HMP2): A Meprin-Like Astacin Metalloproteinase That Functions in Foot Morphogenesis, Development, 2000, vol. 127, pp. 129–141.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schaller, H.C., Isolation and Characterization of a Low-Molecular Weight Substance Activating Head and Bud Formation in Hydra, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol., 1973, vol. 29, pp. 27–38.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schaller, H.C., Action of the Head Activator on the Determination of Interstitial Cells in Hydra, Cell Differ., 1976, vol. 5, pp. 13–20.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hobmayer, B., Holstein, T.W., and David, C.N., Stimulation of Tentacle and Bud Formation by the Neuropeptide Head Activation in Hydra magnipillata, Dev. Biol., 1997, vol. 183, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Franke, I., Buck, F., and Hampe, W., Purification of a Head-Activator Receptor from Hydra, Eur. J. Biochem., 1997, vol. 244, pp. 940–945.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bodenmuller, H., Schaller, H.C., and Darai, G., Human Hypothalamus and Intestine Contain a Hydra Neuropeptide, Neurosci. Lett., 1980, vol. 16, pp. 71–74.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Roberge, M., Escher, E., Schaller, H.C., and Bodenmuller, H., The Hydra Head Activator in Human Blood Circulation. Degradation of the Synthetic Peptide by Plasma Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme, FEBS Lett., 1984, vol. 173, pp. 307–313.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Khomichuk, A.Y. and Timoshin, S.S., Participation of Hydra Peptide Morphogen in Regulation of Proliferation of Various Albino Rat Tissues, Bull. Exp. Biol. Med., 1991, vol. 112, p. 1332.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Khomichuk, A.Y., Timoshin, S.S., Orlov, S.N., Pokudin, N.I., and Kubatiev, A.A., Hydra Peptide Morphogen Activates Na/H Exchange in Human Erythrocytes, Bull. Exp. Biol. Med., 1991, vol. 111, p. 763.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Galliot, B. and Miller, D., Origin of Anterior Patterning. How Old Is Our Head?, Trends Genet., 2000, vol. 16, pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schaller, H.C., Hoffmeister, S.A., and Dubel, S., Role of the Neuropeptide Head Activator for Growth and Development in Hydra and Mammals, Development, 1989, vol. 107, p. 99.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bodenmuller, H., Schilling, E., Zachmann, B., and Schaller, H.C., The Neuropeptide Head Activator Loses Its Biological Activity by Dimerisation, EMBO J., 1986, vol. 5, pp. 1825–1829.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Neubauer, K.H., Christians, S., Hoffmeister, S.A., Kreger, S., and Schaller, H.C., Characterization of Two Types of Head Activator Receptor on Hydra Cells, Mech. Dev., 1990, vol. 33, p. 39.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Schaller, H.C., Hofmann, M., and Javais, L.C., Effect of Head Activator on Proliferation, Head-Specific Determination and Differentiation of Epithelial Cells in Hydra, Differentiation, 1990, vol. 43, pp. 157–164.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kroiher, M., In Hydra magnipapillata the Activator of Protein Kinase C diC8 Causes Multiple Head Formation along the Body Axis Only When Accompanied by Feeding, but Heavy Feeding Alone Is Sufficient to Cause Multiple Head Formation, Int. J. Dev. Biol., 1999, vol. 43, p. 817.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hassel, M., Bridge, D.M., Stover, N.A., Kleinholz, H., and Steele, R.E., The Level of Expression of a Protein Kinase C Gene May Be an Important Component of the Patterning Process in Hydra, Dev. Genes Evol., 1998, vol. 207, p. 502.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Galliot, B., Welschof, M., Schuckert, O., Hoffmeister, S., and Schaller, H.C., The Camp Response Element Binding Protein Is Involved in Hydra Regeneration, Development, 1995, vol. 121, p. 1205.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Grimmelikhuijzen, Properties of the Foot Activator from Hydra, Cell Differ., 1979, vol. 8, pp. 267–273.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hoffmeister, S. and Schaller, H.C., A New Biochemical Marker for Foot-Specific Cell Differentiation in Hydra, Wilhelm Roux Arch. Dev. Biol., 1985, vol. 194, pp. 453–461.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Takahashi, T., Muneoka, Y., Lohmann, J., de Haro, M., Bosch, T.C.G., David, C., Bode, H., Koizumi, O., Shimuzu, H., Hatta, H., Fujisawa, O., and Sugiyama, T., Systematic Isolation of Peptide Signal Regulating Development in Hydra: Lwamide and PW Families, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 1997, vol. 94, pp. 1241–1246.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Grens, A., Shimizu, H., Hoffmeister, S.A., Bode, H.R., and Fujisawa, T., The Novel Signal Peptides, Pedibin and Hym-346, Lower Positional Value Thereby Enhancing Foot Formation in Hydra, Development, 1999, vol. 126, pp. 517–524.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hoffmeister, S.A., Action of Foot Activator on Growth and Differentiation of Cells in Hydra, Dev. Biol., 1989, vol. 133, pp. 254.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hoffmeister, S.A., Isolation and Characterization of Two New Morphogenetically Active Peptides from Hydra vulgaris, Development, 1996, vol. 122, pp. 1941–1948.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wiegel, D., Jurgens, G., Kuttner, F., Seifert, E., and Jackie, H., The Homeotic Gene Fork Head Encodes a Nuclear Protein and Is Expressed in the Terminal Regions of the Drosophila Embryo, Cell, 1989, vol. 57, pp. 645–658.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Martinez, D.E., Dirksen, M.L., Bode, P.M., Jamrich, M., Steele, R.E., and Bode, H.R., Budhead, a Fork Head/HNF-3 Homologue, Is Expressed during Axis.Formation and Head Specification in Hydra, Dev. Biol., 1997, vol. 192, pp. 523–536.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Weinziger, R., Salgalo, L.M., David, C.N., and Bosch, T.C.G., Ks1, an Epithelial Cell-Specific Gene, Responds to Early Signals of Head Formation on Hydra, Development, 1994, vol. 120, pp. 2511–2517.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Endl, L., Lohmann, J., and Bosch, T.C.G., Head-Specific Gene Expression in Hydra: Complexity of DNA-Protein Interactions at the Promoter of ksl Is Inversely Correlated to the Head Activation Potential, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., 1999, vol. 96, pp. 1445–1450.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Smith, J., Brachyury and T-Box Genes, Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev., 1997, vol. 7, pp. 474–480.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kemmner, W. and Schaller, H.C., Analysis of Morphogenetic Mutants of Hydra. IV. Reg-16, A Mutant Deficient in Head Regeneration, Wilhelm Roux’s Arch., 1981, vol. 190, pp. 191–196.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Technau, U. and Bode, H.R., HyBratl, A Brachyury Homologue, Acts during Head Formation in Hydra, Development, 1999, vol. 126, pp. 999–1010.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hermans-Borgmeyer, I., Schinke, B., Schaller, H.C., and Hoffmeister-Ullerich, S.A., Isolation of a Marker for Head-Specific Cell Differentiation in Hydra, Differ., 1996, vol. 61, pp. 95–101.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bridge, D.M., Stover, N.A., and Steele, R.E., Expression of a Novel Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Gene and a Paired-Like Homeobox Gene Provides Evidence of Differences in Patterning at the Oral and Aboral Ends of Hydra, Dev. Biol., 2000, vol. 220, pp. 253–262.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kaufmann, E. and Knochel, S., Five Years of the Wings of Fork Head, Mech. Dev., 1996, vol. 57, pp. 3–20.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Muller, W.A., Experimental and Theoretical Advances in Biological Pattern, Formation, Othmer, H.G., Ed., New York: Plenum, 1993.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gauchat, D., Kreger, S., Holstein, T., and Galliot, B., Prdl-a, Gene Marker for Hydra Apical Differentiation Related to Triploblastic Paired-Like Head-Specific Genes, Development, 1998, vol. 125, pp. 1637–1645.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kumpfmuller, G., Rybakine, V., Fujisawa, T., and Bosch, T.C.G., Identification of an Astacin Matrix Metalloprotease as Target Gene for Hydra Foot Activation Peptides, Dev. Genes. Evol., 1999, vol. 209, pp. 601–607.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© MAIK “Nauka/Interperiodica” 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. S. Kukalev
    • 1
  1. 1.St. Petersburg State UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations