Behavioral Evidence for Olfactory-Based Location of Honeybee Colonies by the Scarab Oplostomus haroldi
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The Afro-tropical scarab Oplostomus haroldi (Witte) is a pest of honeybees in East Africa with little information available on its chemical ecology. Recently, we identified a female-produced contact sex pheromone, (Z)-9-pentacosene, from the cuticular lipids that attracted males. Here, we investigated the kairomonal basis of host location in O. haroldi. We used coupled gas chromatography/electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) and GC/mass spectrometry to identify antennally-active compounds from volatiles collected from honeybee colonies. Antennae of both sexes of the beetle consistently detected seven components, which were identified as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 2,3-butanediol, butyl acetate, isopentyl acetate, butyl butyrate, hexyl acetate, and methyl benzoate. In olfactometer bioassays, both sexes responded to the full seven-component synthetic blend over solvent controls, but chose honeybee colony odors over the blend. These findings suggest that the seven compounds are components of a kairomone from honeybee colonies used by O. haroldi.
KeywordsColeoptera Scarabaeidae Large hive beetle Esters Honeybee Kairomone Cetoniid
The authors are grateful to Dr. D. Salifu for statistical advice; R. Herisolo for the olfactometer drawing; J. Kilonzo, J. Ngang’a, and A Mwajeve for field assistance with bee odors, frame, and beetle collections from the apiary. The authors are grateful to two anonymous reviewers for comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) funded ATF while project funding came from the United States Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS Project No. SCA-586615-7-119F).
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