Behavioral Evidence for Olfactory-Based Location of Honeybee Colonies by the Scarab Oplostomus haroldi
- 267 Downloads
The Afro-tropical scarab Oplostomus haroldi (Witte) is a pest of honeybees in East Africa with little information available on its chemical ecology. Recently, we identified a female-produced contact sex pheromone, (Z)-9-pentacosene, from the cuticular lipids that attracted males. Here, we investigated the kairomonal basis of host location in O. haroldi. We used coupled gas chromatography/electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) and GC/mass spectrometry to identify antennally-active compounds from volatiles collected from honeybee colonies. Antennae of both sexes of the beetle consistently detected seven components, which were identified as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 2,3-butanediol, butyl acetate, isopentyl acetate, butyl butyrate, hexyl acetate, and methyl benzoate. In olfactometer bioassays, both sexes responded to the full seven-component synthetic blend over solvent controls, but chose honeybee colony odors over the blend. These findings suggest that the seven compounds are components of a kairomone from honeybee colonies used by O. haroldi.
KeywordsColeoptera Scarabaeidae Large hive beetle Esters Honeybee Kairomone Cetoniid
The authors are grateful to Dr. D. Salifu for statistical advice; R. Herisolo for the olfactometer drawing; J. Kilonzo, J. Ngang’a, and A Mwajeve for field assistance with bee odors, frame, and beetle collections from the apiary. The authors are grateful to two anonymous reviewers for comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) funded ATF while project funding came from the United States Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS Project No. SCA-586615-7-119F).
- Bengtsson JM, Khbaish H, Reineckle A, Wolde-Hawariat Y, Negash M, Seyoum HBS, Hillbur Y, Larsson MC (2011) Conserved, highly specialized olfactory neurons for food compounds in 2 congeneric scarab beetles, Pachnoda interrupta and Pachnoda marginata. Chem Senses 36:499–513CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Donaldson JMI (1989) Oplostomus fuligineus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): life cycle and biology under laboratory conditions, and its occurrence in bee hives. Coleopt Bull 43:177–182Google Scholar
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2006) Honey bee diseases and pests: A practical guide. Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
- Johannsmeier MF (2001) Beekeeping in South Africa. Plant protection research institute, Pretoria, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
- Nazzi F, Le Conte Y (2016) Ecology of Varroa destructor, the major ectoparasite of the western honey bee Apis mellifera. Annu Rev Entomol 61:417–432Google Scholar
- Njau MA, Mpuya PM, Mturi FA (2009) Apiculture potential in protected areas: The case study of Udzungwa Mountains National Park, Tanzania. IJBESM 5:95–101Google Scholar
- Oyerinde AA, Ande AT (2009) Distribution and impact of honey bee pests on colony development in Kwara State, Nigeria. JASS 5:85–88Google Scholar
- Stensmyr MC, Larsson MC, Bice S, Hansson BS (2001) Detection of fruit- and flower emitted volatiles by olfactory receptor neurons in the polyphagous fruit chafer Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera: Cetoniinae. J Comp Physiol 187:509–519Google Scholar
- Torto B, Suazo A, Alborn H, Tumlinson JH, Teal PEA (2005) Response of the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) to a blend of chemicals identified from honeybee (Apis mellifera) volatiles. Apidologie 36: 523–532Google Scholar
- Torto B, Arbogast RT, Alborn H, Suazo A, van Engelsdorp D, Boucias D, Tumlinson JH, Teal PEA (2007a) Composition of volatiles from fermenting pollen dough and attractiveness to the small hive beetle Aethina tumida, a parasite of the honey bee Apis mellifera. Apidologie 38:380–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wakefield M.E. (1998) The effect of insect age on the response of three species of Sitophilus to 4S,5R-sitophilure and food volatiles. Proceedings of the 7th International Working Conference on Stored-Products Protection, 2, 1513–1518.Google Scholar