The Effect of Ethnicity on Human Axillary Odorant Production
- 457 Downloads
Previous findings from our laboratory highlighted marked ethnic differences in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from cerumen among individuals of Caucasian, East Asian, and African-American descent, based, in part, on genetic differences in a gene that codes for a transport protein, which is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter, sub-family C, member 11 (ABCC11). In the current work, we hypothesized that axillary odorants produced by East Asians would differ markedly from those obtained from individuals of European or African descent based on the pattern of ethnic diversity that exists in ABCC11. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we examined differences in axillary odorant VOCs among 30 individuals of African-American, Caucasian, and East Asian descent with respect to their ABCC11 genotype. While no qualitative differences in the type of axillary odorants were observed across ethnic groups, we found that characteristic axillary odorants varied quantitatively with respect to ethnic origin. We propose that ABCC11 is not solely responsible for predicting the relative amounts of volatiles found in axillary secretions and that other biochemical pathways must be involved.
KeywordsAxillary odor Ethnicity/race Volatile organic compounds Genetics Analytical chemistry
The authors thank Jason Eades for technical support. KAP acknowledges support from NIH-NIDCD Postdoctoral Training Grant 5T32DC0014 as well as Monell Institutional Funds. The genotyping was performed at the Monell Genotyping and DNA/RNA Analysis Core, which is supported, in part, by funding from the NIH-NIDCD Core Grant P30DC01173.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Annigan J (2014) Foods that are highest in isoleucine & leucine. http://www.livestrong.com/article/275274-foods-that-are-highest-in-isoleucine-leucine/. Accessed 24 October 2014
- Baumann T, Bergmann S, Schmidt-Rose T, Max H, Martin A, Enthaler B, Terstegen L, Schweiger D, Kalbacher H, Wenck H, et al. (2014) Glutathione-conjugated sulfanylalkanols are substrates for ABCC11 and gamma-glutamyl transferase 1: a potential new pathway for the formation of odorant precursors in the apocrine sweat gland. Exp Dermatol 23:247–252PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Harker M, Carvell AM, Marti VP, Riazanskaia S, Kelso H, Taylor D, Grimshaw S, Arnold DS, Zillmer R, Shaw J, et al. (2014) Functional characterisation of a SNP in the ABCC11 allele - effects on axillary skin metabolism, odour generation and associated behaviours. J Dermatol Sci 73:23–30CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Inoue Y, Mori T, Toyoda Y, Sakurai A, Ishikawa T, Mitani Y, Hayashizaki Y, Yoshimura Y, Kurahashi H, Sakai Y (2010) Correlation of axillary osmidrosis to a SNP in the ABCC11 gene determined by the smart amplification process (SmartAmp) method. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 63:1369–1374CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pierce Jr JD, Zeng XN, Aronov EV, Preti G, Wysocki CJ (1995) Cross-adaptation of sweaty-smelling 3-methyl-2-hexenoic acid by a structurally-similar, pleasant-smelling odorant. Chem Senses 20:401–411Google Scholar
- ProCon.org (2010) Lactose intolorance by ethnicity and region. http://milk.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=000661. Accessed 24 October 2014
- Toyoda Y, Sakurai A, Mitani Y, Nakashima M, Yoshiura K, Nakagawa H, Sakai Y, Ota I, Lezhava A, Hayashizaki Y, et al. (2009) Earwax, osmidrosis, and breast cancer: why does one SNP (538G > a) in the human ABC transporter ABCC11 gene determine earwax type? FASEB J 23:2001–2013CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar