Advertisement

Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 40, Issue 5, pp 418–428 | Cite as

Following in Their Footprints: Cuticular Hydrocarbons as Overwintering Aggregation Site Markers in Hippodamia convergens

  • Christopher A. Wheeler
  • Ring T. Cardé
Article

Abstract

The convergent lady beetle (Hippodamia convergens) forms large overwintering aggregations at revisited montane microsites far removed from their summer foraging grounds. Although orientation responses to visual and altitudinal features of habitat can explain the arrival of migrants at the general overwintering macrosite, the role that pheromones play in the accumulation of individuals in inconspicuous hibernacula microsites is not fully understood. Through two-choice bioassays and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, we found that H. convergens orient towards hydrocarbons previously deposited on their walking surfaces by conspecifics. n-Tricosane (C23) is primarily responsible for this chemically-mediated orientation. Footprint extracts, as well as C23 alone, induce the eventual accumulation in the field of migrant H. convergens at artificial hibernacula, confirming their probable role as aggregation signals. Aggregations persisted over many days when footprint extracts were applied in conjunction with the previously identified 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) aggregation pheromone. The C23 hydrocarbon functions as a pheromone that interacts with responses to methoxypyrazines to effectively mediate formation of persistent aggregations of diapausing conspecifics at specific microsites. Also discussed is the potential effect that C23 has as a persistent scent marker in establishing the traditional use of hibernacula.

Keywords

Hippodamia convergens Coccinellidae Aggregation pheromone n-tricosane Overwintering Methoxypyrazines 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Jocelyn Millar for access to chemical standards and GC/MS analyses. We also thank the James San Jacinto Mountain Reserve directors, Becca Fenwick and Jennifer Gee, for facilitating collection of beetles and cooperation in securing the test plots necessary for field bioassays. The research was supported in part by the Robert and Peggy van den Bosch Scholarship, and the Temecula Valley Wine Society.

References

  1. Arnaud L, Spinneux Y, Haubruge E (2003) Preliminary observations of sperm storage in Adalia bipunctata: sperm size and number. Appl Entomol Zool 38:301–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bartelt RJ (2010) Volatile hydrocarbon pheromones from beetles. In: Blomquist GJ, Bagnéres A-G (eds) Insect hydrocarbons: biology, biochemistry, and chemical ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 448–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bennett LE, Lee RE (1989) Simulated winter to summer transition in diapausing adults of the lady beetle (Hippodamia convergens). Physiol Entomol 14:361–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blomquist GJ (2010) Biosynthesis of cuticular hydrocarbons. In: Blomquiste GJ, Bagnéres A-G (eds) Insect hydrocarbons: biology, biochemistry, and chemical ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 35–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blomquist GJ, Bagnéres A-G (2010) Insect hydrocarbons: biology, biochemistry, and chemical ecology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blum MS (1996) Semiochemical parsimony in the Arthropoda. Annu Rev Entomol 41:353–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boyd R, Richerson PJ (1985) Culture and the evolutionary process. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown AE, Riddick EW, Aldrich JR, Holmes WE (2006) Identification of (−)-β-caryophyllene as a gender-specific terpene produced by the multicolored Asian lady beetle. J Chem Ecol 32:2489–2499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Childress MJ, Hernkind WF (2001) The guide effect influence on the gregariousness of juvenile Caribbean spiny lobsters. Anim Behav 62:465–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Copp NH (1983) Temperature-dependent behaviours and cluster formation by aggregating ladybird beetles. Anim Behav 31:424–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cudjoe E, Wiederkehr TB, Brindle ID (2005) Headspace gas chromatography–mass spectrometry: a fast approach to the identification and determination of 2-alkyl-3-methoxypyrazine pheromones in ladybugs. Analyst 130:152–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Deneubourg J-L, Lioni A, Detrain C (2002) Dynamics of aggregation and emergence of cooperation. Biol Bull 202:262–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Donaldson ZR, Grether GF (2007) Tradition without social learning: scent-mark-based communal roost formation in a Neotropical harvestman (Prinostemma sp.). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 61:801–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Durieux D, Fischer C, Brostaux Y, Sloggett JJ, Deneubourg J-L, Vandereycken A, Joie E, Watchelet J-P, Lognay G, Haubruge E, Verheggen FJ (2012) Role of long-chain hydrocarbons in the aggregation behaviour of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellida). J Insect Physiol 58:801–807PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Durieux D, Fassotte B, Vanderplank M, Deneubourg J-L, Fischer C, Lognay G, Haubruge E, Verheggen FJ (2013) Substrate marking by an invasive ladybeetle: seasonal changes in hydrocarbon composition and behavioural responses. PLoS One 8:e61124PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dussutour A, Deneuboug J, Fourcassie V (2005) Amplification of individual preferences in a social context: the case of wall-following in ants. Proc R Soc Biol Sci 272:705–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Evans EW (2004) Habitat displacement of North American ladybirds by an introduced species. Ecology 85:637–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Greene MC, Stamps JA (2001) Habitat selection at low population densities. Ecology 82:2091–2100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hagen KS (1962) Biology and ecology of predaceous Coccinellidae. Annu Rev Entomol 7:289–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hemptinne JL, Dixon AF (2000) Defence, oviposition and sex: semiochemical parsimony in two species of ladybird beetles (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae)? A short review. Eur J Entomol 97:443–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hemptinne JL, Lognay G, Doumbia M, Dixon AF (2001) Chemical nature and persistence of the oviposition deterring pheromone in the tracks of the larvae of the two spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Chemoecology 11:43–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hodek I, Honêk A (1996) Ecology of Coccinellidae. Kluwer, BostonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Honěk A, Martinková Z, Pekár S (2007) Aggregation characteristics of three species of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) at hibernation sites. Eur J Entomol 104:51–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jeanson R, Deneubourg J-L (2007) Conspecific attraction and shelter selection in gregarious insects. Am Nat 170:47–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kosaki A, Yamaoka R (1996) Chemical composition of footprints and cuticular lipids of three species of lady beetles. Jpn J Appl Entomol Zool 40:47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lockey KH (1988) Lipids of the insect cuticle: origin, composition and function. Comp Biochem Physiol 89B:595–645Google Scholar
  27. Majerus MEN (1997) How is Adalia bipunctata (Linn.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) attracted to overwintering sites? Entomol 116:602–615Google Scholar
  28. Michaud JP, Jyoti JL (2007) Repellency of conspecific and heterospecific larval residues to Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) ovipositing on sorghum plants. Eur J Entoml 104:399–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nalepa CA, Kennedy GG, Brownie C (2005) Role of visual contrast in the alighting behavior of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) at overwintering sites. Environ Entomol 34:425–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pettersson J, Ninkovic V, Glinwood R, Birkett MA, Pickett JA (2005) Foraging in a complex environment - semiochemicals support searching behaviour of the seven spot ladybird. Eur J Entomol 102:365–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rankin MA, Rankin S (1980a) Some factors affecting presumed migratory flight activity of the convergent ladybeetle, Hippodamia convergens (Coccinellida, Coleoptera). Biol Bull 158:356–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rankin SM, Rankin MA (1980b) The hormonal-control of migratory fight behaviour in the convergent ladybird beetle, Hippodamia convergens. Physiol Entomol 5:175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Seagraves MP (2009) Lady beetle oviposition behavior in response to the trophic environment. Biol Control 51:313–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Steinmetz I, Schmolz E, Ruther J (2003) Cuticular lipids as trail pheromone in a social wasp. Proc R Soc Biol 270:385–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Susset EC, Ramon-Portugal F, Hemptinne J-L, Dewhirst SY, Birkett MA, Magro A (2013) The role of semiochemicas in short-range location of aggregation sites in Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae). J Chem Ecol 39:592–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wertheim B, van Baalen E-JA, Dicke M, Vet LE (2005) Pheromone-mediated aggregation in nonsocial arthropods: an evolutionary ecological perspective. Annu Rev Entomol 50:321–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wheeler CA (2013) Odor-mediated aggregations of the aposematic coccinellid beetle, Hippodamia convergens: supplementary functions in chemical communication. Dissertation, University of California, RiversideGoogle Scholar
  38. Wheeler CA, Cardé RT (2013) Defensive allomones funciton as aggregation pheromones in diapausing ladybird beetles, Hippodamia convergens. J Chem Ecol 39:723–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wilms J, Eltz T (2008) Foraging scent marks of bumblebees: footprint cues rather than pheromone signals. Naturwissenschaften 95:149–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Woolfson A, Rothschild M (1990) Speculating about pyrazines. Proc R Soc Biol 242:113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA
  2. 2.Department of EntomologyUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA

Personalised recommendations