Production and Antimicrobial Activity of 3-Hydroxypropionaldehyde from Bacillus subtilis Strain CU12
Bacillus subtilis strains are known to produce a vast array of antimicrobial compounds. However, some compounds remain to be identified. Disk assays performed in vitro with Bacillus subtilis CU12 showed a significant reduction in mycelial growth of Alternaria solani, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium sambucinum, and Pythium sulcatum. Crude B. subtilis culture filtrates were subsequently extracted with ethyl acetate and butanol. A bioassay guided purification procedure revealed the presence of one major antifungal compound in the butanol extract. Purification of the compound was performed using a reverse-phase C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge and flash column chromatography. NMR data showed that the main antimicrobial compound was a cyclic dimer of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (HPA). This study demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of B. subtilis strain CU12 against phytopathogenic microorganisms is mediated at least in part by the production of HPA. It also suggests that this B. subtilis strain could be effective at controlling pathogens through protection of its ecological niche by antibiosis.
KeywordsBacillus subtilis 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde Antifungal compound Plant pathogens Ecological niche
The authors thank Yichen Du and Justin Falardeau for technical assistance. This work was supported by a research grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada.
- Bélanger, R. R. and Avis, T. J. 2002. Ecological processes and interactions occurring in leaf surface fungi, pp. 193–207, in S. E. Lindow, E. I. Hecht-Poinar, and V. J. Elliot (eds.), Phyllosphere Microbiology. APS Press, St. Paul.Google Scholar
- Dobrogosz, W. J. and Lindgren, S. E. 1988. Antibiotic Reuterin. US patent PCT/US88/01423.Google Scholar
- Garrity, G. M., Bell, J. A., and Lilburn, T. G. 2004. Taxonomic Outline of the Prokaryotes. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd ed. Springer, New York.Google Scholar
- Holt, J. G. 1986. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 1st Edition. Vol. 2. Gram-Positive Bacteria Other than Actinomycetes. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
- Talarico, T. L. and Dobrogosz, W. J. 1989. Chemical characterization of an antimicrobial substance produced by Lactobacillus reuteri. Microbiology 33:674–679.Google Scholar
- Voisenet, M. E. 1914. Sur un ferment, contenu dans les eaux, agent de déshydratation de la glycérine. C. R. Acad. Sci. 150:1614–1616.Google Scholar