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Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 38, Issue 10, pp 1306–1317 | Cite as

Does the Stereochemistry of Methylated Cuticular Hydrocarbons Contribute to Mate Recognition in the Egg Parasitoid Wasp Ooencyrtus kuvanae?

  • Kelly Ablard
  • Regine Gries
  • Grigori Khaskin
  • Paul W. Schaefer
  • Gerhard Gries
Article

Abstract

Close-range sexual communication of the egg parasitoid wasp Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) takes place on host gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), egg masses. We tested the hypothesis that mate recognition in O. kuvanae is mediated, in part, by low-volatility cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) pheromone components. Gas chromatographic and GC-mass spectrometric analyses of body surface extracts of male and female wasps revealed no sex-specific components, but 5-methylheptacosane (5-me-27Hy) and 5,17-dimethylheptacosane (5,17-dime-27Hy) were consistently more abundant in extracts of males. The ratio of 5-me-27Hy and 5,17-dime-27Hy was similar in extracts of males and females, and quantitative differences alone seemed insufficient to impart sex-specific CHC profiles. Therefore, we further hypothesized that the absolute configuration of 5-me-27Hy and 5,17-dime-27Hy contributes to mate recognition or attraction. As the stereoisomers of 5-me-27Hy and 5,17-dime-27Hy cannot currently be separated chromatographically, we could not determine the stereochemistry of the insect-produced components. Instead, we synthesized all stereoisomers and bioassayed synthetic blends in laboratory experiments. Of eight 2-component blends, each blend containing one of the two enantiomers of 5-me-27Hy and one of the four stereoisomers of 5,17-dime-27Hy, the blend of (5S)-methylheptacosane and (5R,17S)-dimethylheptacosane attracted males, whereas the blend of (5R)-methylheptacosane and (5R,17R)-dimethylheptacosane repelled males. Apparent recognition of both pheromone components and pheromone antagonists by males supports the hypothesis that the stereochemistry of 5-me-27Hy and 5,17-dime-27Hy, and possibly other methylated CHCs, may differ between male and female O. kuvanae, and that these differences may serve in mate attraction and recognition.

Keywords

Mate recognition Stereoisomers Cuticular hydrocarbons Sex pheromone Enantiomers Pheromone antagonist Absolute configuration Stereochemistry Parasitoid 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank G. Andersen, M. Andersen, H. Bottomley, U. Somjee, and O. Moeri for technical assistance; E. Kiehlmann for review of the manuscript, S. DeMuth for graphical illustrations, and two anonymous reviewers for constructive comments. Funding was provided by a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) – Discovery Grant and by an NSERC – Industrial Research Chair to G. G., with Contech Enterprises, SC Johnson Canada, and Global Forest Science (GF-18-2007-226; GF-18-2007-227) as sponsors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kelly Ablard
    • 1
  • Regine Gries
    • 1
  • Grigori Khaskin
    • 1
  • Paul W. Schaefer
    • 2
  • Gerhard Gries
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesSimon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada
  2. 2.Beneficial Insect Introduction Research LaboratoryU.S. Department of AgricultureNewarkUSA

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