Spatial Variability in Secondary Metabolites of the Indo-Pacific Sponge Stylissa massa
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Chemical diversity represents a measure of selective pressures acting on genotypic variability. In order to understand patterns of chemical ecology and biodiversity in the environment, it is necessary to enhance our knowledge of chemical diversity within and among species. Many sponges produce variable levels of secondary metabolites in response to diverse biotic and abiotic environmental factors. This study evaluated intra-specific variability in secondary metabolites in the common Indo-Pacific sponge Stylissa massa over various geographic scales, from local to ocean basin. Several major metabolites were quantified in extracts from sponges collected in American Samoa, Pohnpei, Saipan, and at several sites and depths in Guam. Concentrations of several of these metabolites varied geographically across the Pacific basin, with American Samoa and Pohnpei exhibiting the greatest differences, and Guam and Saipan more similar to each other. There were also significant differences in concentrations among different sites and depths within Guam. The crude extract of S. massa exhibited feeding deterrence against the omnivorous pufferfish Canthigaster solandri at natural concentrations, however, none of the isolated compounds was deterrent at the maximum natural concentrations observed, nor were mixtures of these compounds, thus emphasizing the need for bioassay-guided isolation to characterize specific chemical defenses. Antibacterial activity against a panel of ecologically relevant pathogens was minimal. Depth transplants, predator exclusion, and UV protection experiments were performed, but although temporal variability in compound concentrations was observed, there was no evidence that secondary metabolite concentration in S. massa was induced by any of these factors. Although the reasons behind the variability observed in the chemical constituents of S. massa are still in question, all sponges are not created equal from a chemical standpoint, and these studies provide further insights into patterns of chemical diversity within S. massa.
KeywordsPorifera Chemical defense Geographic variability Stylissa Antimicrobial activity
We thank Katerina Pappas, Mallory de Johnson, Sylvester Lee, and Dr. Haidy Kamel for their help in the laboratory. Funding was provided by a NOAA/NIUST grant #NA16RU1496 to MS and by NIH MBRS SCORE grant S06-GM-44796 to PJS. SR was supported by a fellowship within the Postdoc-Program of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). Field support was provided by the University of Guam Marine Laboratory, American Samoa Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources, Saipan Division of Coastal Resources Management, and Pohnpei Department of Marine Development. Samples were collected under permits from the Guam Department of Agriculture, American Samoa Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Division of Fish and Wildlife, and Pohnpei Department of Marine Development.
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