Female Sex Pheromone of the Gelechiid Moth Scrobipalpa salinella (Zeller)
The sex pheromone system of Scrobipalpa salinella (Zeller), an important pest of the halophyte Salicornia europaea in the tidal salt marshes, was studied. Z3-12:OAc and Z5-12:OAc were identified from both female pheromone glands and female emissions, but in quite different ratios. Field trapping tests demonstrated that Z3-12:OAc and Z5-12:OAc are essential for optimal attraction of male moths, and a 100:5 blend found in gland extracts is significantly more attractive to males than a 100:50 ratio similar to that found in SPME samples. Small amounts of E3-12:OAc and Z5-14:OAc also were present in pheromone gland extracts. A blend of E3-12:OAc with Z3-12:OAc attracted a few males, but was not as attractive as the binary blend of Z3-12:OAc and Z5-12:OAc. Moreover, addition of E3-12:OAc did not affect captures of males to the primary binary blend. Another glandular component, Z5-14:OAc, had no behavioral activity in field bioassays. Therefore, a synthetic mixture of Z3-12:OAc and Z5-12:OAc in a 100:5 ratio can be used as an effective tool for monitoring and control of this species.
Key WordsScrobipalpa salinella Sex pheromone SPME Lepidoptera Gelechiidae Halophytes
The authors thank Prof. Kyu Tek Park for identification of Scrobipalpa salinella. We also acknowledge the assistance of Si Hyuk Choi and Jae Seong Han with field trials. The manuscript was improved by constructive comments from Jeffrey Aldrich and two anonymous reviewers.
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