Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 37, Issue 11, pp 1216–1221 | Cite as

Female Sex Pheromone of the Gelechiid Moth Scrobipalpa salinella (Zeller)

  • Chang Yeol Yang
  • Chae Hoon Paik
  • Geon Hwi Lee
  • Jin Young Park


The sex pheromone system of Scrobipalpa salinella (Zeller), an important pest of the halophyte Salicornia europaea in the tidal salt marshes, was studied. Z3-12:OAc and Z5-12:OAc were identified from both female pheromone glands and female emissions, but in quite different ratios. Field trapping tests demonstrated that Z3-12:OAc and Z5-12:OAc are essential for optimal attraction of male moths, and a 100:5 blend found in gland extracts is significantly more attractive to males than a 100:50 ratio similar to that found in SPME samples. Small amounts of E3-12:OAc and Z5-14:OAc also were present in pheromone gland extracts. A blend of E3-12:OAc with Z3-12:OAc attracted a few males, but was not as attractive as the binary blend of Z3-12:OAc and Z5-12:OAc. Moreover, addition of E3-12:OAc did not affect captures of males to the primary binary blend. Another glandular component, Z5-14:OAc, had no behavioral activity in field bioassays. Therefore, a synthetic mixture of Z3-12:OAc and Z5-12:OAc in a 100:5 ratio can be used as an effective tool for monitoring and control of this species.

Key Words

Scrobipalpa salinella Sex pheromone SPME Lepidoptera Gelechiidae Halophytes 



The authors thank Prof. Kyu Tek Park for identification of Scrobipalpa salinella. We also acknowledge the assistance of Si Hyuk Choi and Jae Seong Han with field trials. The manuscript was improved by constructive comments from Jeffrey Aldrich and two anonymous reviewers.


  1. Acín, P., Rosell, G., Guerrero, A., and Quero, C. 2010. Sex pheromone of the Spanish population of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua. J. Chem. Ecol. 36:778–786.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker, R., Herbert, R. H., Neequaye, N. N., and Rao, K. N. 1985. Sex pheromone of tobacco stem borer, Scrobipalpa heliopa (Lower) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 11:989–998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, T. C., Cardé, R. T., and Miller, J. R. 1980. Oriental fruit moth pheromone component emission rates measured after collection by glass-surface adsorption. J. Chem. Ecol. 6:749–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Buser, H., Arn, H., Guerin, P., and Rauscher, S. 1983. Determination of double bond position in mono-unsaturated acetates by mass spectrometry of dimethyldisulfide. Anal. Chem. 55:818–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Davy, A. J., Bishop, G. F., and Costa, C. S. B. 2001. Salicornia L. (Salicornia pusilla J. Woods, S. ramosissima J. Woods, S. europaea L., S. obscura P.W. Ball & Tutin, S. nitens P.W. Ball & Tutin, S. fragilis P.W. Ball & Tutun and S. dolichostachya Moss). J. Ecol. 89:681–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. El-Sayed, A. M. 2011. The Pherobase: database of insect pheromones and semiochemicals.
  7. Elsner, G., Huemer, P., and Tokár, Z. 1999. Die Palpenmotten (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) Mitteleuropas: Bestimmung-Verbreitung-Flugstandort, Lebensweise der Raupen. Bratislava.Google Scholar
  8. Francke, W., Karalius, V., Plass, E., Lehmann, L., Dos Santos, A., BŪda, V., Borg-Karlson, A. K., and Mozûraitis, R. 2004. New type of Sesiidae sex pheromone identified from the hornet moth Sesia apiformis. J. Chem. Ecol. 30:805–817.Google Scholar
  9. Hodges, R. W. 1999. The Gelechioidea, pp 131–158, in N. P. Kristensen (ed.), Handbook of Zoology, Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies, Vol. 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin and New York.Google Scholar
  10. Inomata, S., Watanabe, A., Nomura, M., and Ando, T. 2005. Mating communication systems of four Plusiinae species distributed in Japan: Identification of the sex pheromones and field evaluation. J. Chem. Ecol. 31:1429–1442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Marques, F. A., Mcelfresh, J. S., and Millar, J. G. 2000. Kováts retention indexes of monounsaturated C12, C14, and C16 alcohols, acetates and aldehydes commonly found in lepidopteran pheromone blends. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 11:592–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mcelfresh, J. S., Moreira, J. A., Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., Headrick, D. H., Heraty, J. M., Guillén, M., and Millar, J. G. 2009. Novel lepidopteran sex pheromone components from Marmara gulosa (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 102:574–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Millar, J. G. and Rice, R. E. 1992. Reexamination of the female sex pheromone of the peach twig borer: Field screening of minor constituents of pheromone gland extracts and of pheromone analogs. J. Econ. Entomol. 85:1709–1716.Google Scholar
  14. Naka, H., Inomata, S., Matsuoka, K., Yamamoto, M., Sugie, H., Tsuchida, K., Arita, Y., and Ando, T. 2007. Sex pheromones of two Melittini species, Macroscelesia japona and M. longipes: Identification and field attraction. J. Chem. Ecol. 33:591–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nesbitt, B. F., Beevor, P. S., Cork, A., Hall, D. R., Murillo, R. M., and Leal, H. R. 1985. Identification of components of the female sex pheromone of the potato tuber moth, Scrobipalpopsis solanivora. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 38:81–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Park, J. Y. and Park, K. T. 2008. Rediscovery of Scrobipalpa salinella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) feeding on Salicornia europaea Linneaus in Korea. Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 47:309–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Park, K. T. and Ponomarenko, M. G. 2006. New faunistic data for the family Gelechiidae in the Korean Peninsula and NE China (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). SHILAP Revta. Lepid. 34:275–288.Google Scholar
  18. Priesner, E. 1986. Correlating sensory and behavioural responses in multichemical pheromone systems of Lepidoptera, pp 225–233, in T. L. Payne, M. C. Birch, and C. E. J. Kennedy (eds.), Mechanisms in Insect Olfaction. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  19. Priesner, E. 1987. (Z)-3-Tetradecenyl acetate as sex attractant component in Gelechiinae and Anomologinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Z. Naturforsch. 42c:1352–1355.Google Scholar
  20. Reed, D. W. and Chisholm, M. D. 1985. Attraction of moth species of Tortricidae, Gelechiidae, Geometridae, Drepanidae, Pyralidae, and Gracillariidae families to field traps baited with conjugated dienes. J. Chem. Ecol. 11:1645–1657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Renou, M., Descoins, C., Lallemand, J. Y., Priesner, E., Lettere, M., and Gallois, M. 1980. (E)-3-Dodecenyl acetate, main component of the sex pheromone of the sugar beet moth, Scrobipalpa ocellatella (Boyd) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Z. Angew. Entomol. 90:275–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rhee, M. H., Park, H., and Cho, J. Y. 2009. Salicornia herbacea: Botanical, chemical and pharmacological review of halophyte marsh plant. J. Med. Plants Res. 3:548–555.Google Scholar
  23. SAS Institute. 2008. Statview. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.Google Scholar
  24. Yang, C. Y., Cho, J. R., Kang, T. J., and Jeon, H. Y. 2008. Identification and field testing of sex pheromone components of a Korean population of the allium leafminer, Acrolepiopsis sapporensis. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 129:216–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yang, C. Y., Cho, M. R., and Choi, D. R. 2011a. Identification and field evaluation of the sex pheromone components of a Korean population of Glossosphecia romanovi. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 138:244–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yang, C. Y., Kim, S. J., and Lee, S. G. 2011b. Identification and field evaluation of the sex pheromone of Synanthedon bicingulata (Staudinger). J. Chem. Ecol. 37:398–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chang Yeol Yang
    • 1
  • Chae Hoon Paik
    • 2
  • Geon Hwi Lee
    • 2
  • Jin Young Park
    • 3
  1. 1.National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal ScienceRural Development AdministrationSuwonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.National Institute of Crop ScienceRural Development AdministrationIksanRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Shinan Agricultural Technology Service CenterShinanRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations