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Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp 18–28 | Cite as

Volatile Emissions from Alnus glutionosa Induced by Herbivory are Quantitatively Related to the Extent of Damage

  • Lucian Copolovici
  • Astrid Kännaste
  • Triinu Remmel
  • Vivian Vislap
  • Ülo Niinemets
Article

Abstract

Plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) elicited in response to herbivory serve as cues for parasitic and predatory insects. Knowledge about quantitative relationships between the extent of herbivore-induced damage and the quantities of VOCs released is scarce. We studied the kinetics of VOC-emissions from foliage of the deciduous tree Alnus glutinosa induced by feeding activity of larvae of the geometrid moth Cabera pusaria. Quantitative relationships between the intensity of stress and strength of plant response were determined. Intensity of biotic stress was characterized by herbivore numbers (0–8 larvae) and by the amount of leaf area eaten. The strength of plant response was characterized by monitoring (i) changes in photosynthesis, (ii) leaf ultrastructure, and (iii) plant volatiles. Net assimilation rate displayed compensatory responses in herbivore-damaged leaves compared with control leaves. This compensatory response was associated with an overall increase in chloroplast size. Feeding-induced emissions of products of the lipoxygenase pathway (LOX products; (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenol, 1-hexanol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate) peaked at day 1 after larval feeding started, followed by an increase of emissions of ubiquitous monoterpenes peaking on days 2 and 3. The emission of the monoterpene (E)-β-ocimene and of the nerolidol-derived homoterpene 4,8-dimethyl-nona-1,3,7-triene (DMNT) peaked on day 3. Furthermore, the emission kinetics of the sesquiterpene (E,E)-α-farnesene tended to be biphasic with peaks on days 2 and 4 after start of larval feeding. Emission rates of the induced LOX products, of (E)-β-ocimene and (E,E)-α-farnesene were positively correlated with the number of larvae feeding. In contrast, the emission of DMNT was independent of the number of feeders. These data show quantitative relationships between the strength of herbivory and the emissions of LOX products and most of the terpenoids elicited in response to feeding. Thus, herbivory-elicited LOX products and terpenoid emissions may convey both quantitative and qualitative signals to antagonists of the herbivores. In contrast, our data suggest that the feeding-induced homoterpene DMNT conveys the information “presence of herbivores” rather than information about the quantities of herbivores to predators and parasitoids.

Key Words

Biotic stress Green leaf volatiles Leaf ultrastructure Photosynthesis rate Volatile organic compounds 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Prof. Jarmo Holopainen, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, for the 4,8-dimethyl-nona-1,3,7-triene (DMNT) standard. The Estonian Ministry of Science and Education (grants SF1090065s07 and SF0180122S08), the Estonian Science Foundation (post-doctoral grants JD101, MJD14 and grant 7645) and the European Commission through the European Regional Development Fund (Center of Excellence FIBIR) provided financial support for this research.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucian Copolovici
    • 1
  • Astrid Kännaste
    • 1
  • Triinu Remmel
    • 2
  • Vivian Vislap
    • 1
  • Ülo Niinemets
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Agricultural and Environmental SciencesEstonian University of Life SciencesTartuEstonia
  2. 2.Department of Zoology, Institute of Ecology and Earth SciencesUniversity of TartuTartuEstonia

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