Allelochemical Effects of Volatile Compounds and Organic Extracts from Muscodor yucatanensis, a Tropical Endophytic Fungus from Bursera simaruba
Muscodor yucatanensis, an endophytic fungus, was isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) in a dry, semideciduous tropical forest in the Ecological Reserve El Eden, Quintana Roo, Mexico. We tested the mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by M. yucatanensis for allelochemical effects against other endophytic fungi, phytopathogenic fungi and fungoids, and plants. VOCs were lethal to Guignardia mangifera, Colletotrichum sp., Phomopsis sp., Alternaria solani, Rhizoctonia sp., Phytophthora capsici, and P. parasitica, but had no effect on Fusarium oxysporum, Xylaria sp., the endophytic isolate 120, or M. yucatanensis. VOCs inhibited root elongation in amaranth, tomato, and barnyard grass, particularly those produced during the first 15 days of fungal growth. VOCs were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and included compounds not previously reported from other Muscodor species and the previously reported compounds octane, 2-methyl butyl acetate, 2-pentyl furan, caryophyllene, and aromadendrene. We also evaluated organic extracts from the culture medium and mycelium of M. yucatanensis on the same endophytes, phytopathogens, and plants. In general, extracts inhibited plants more than endophytic or phytopathogens fungi. G. mangifera was the only organism that was significantly stimulated by both extracts regardless of concentration. Compounds in both organic extracts were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We discuss the possible allelopathic role that metabolites of M. yucatanensis play in its ecological interactions with its host plant and other organisms.
Key WordsAllelopathy Bursera simaruba Endophytic fungi Muscodor yucatanensis Phytopathogenic fungi Phytopathogenic fungoids
This work was supported by grants IN230107 DGAPA-UNAM and CONACyT 81017. We thank Dr. Arturo Gómez-Pompa for support to work in El Eden Ecological Reserve, and to Biol. Juan Castillo for help in the field work. We also thank to Dra. Olga Gómez from Instituto de Fitosanidad, Colegio de Postgraduados, Montecillo, Estado de México for the donation of plant-pathogenic microorganisms used in the bioassays; and Biol. Carmen Loyola for valuable help with photos of results on phytoinhibitory activity of VOCs from Muscodor yucatanensis, and María Teresa Caudillo from Instituto de Ecología, UNAM for support with the bioassays.
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