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Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 36, Issue 9, pp 978–982 | Cite as

Defensive Secretions in Three Species of Polydesmids (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Polydesmidae)

  • Slobodan E. Makarov
  • Božidar P. M. Ćurčić
  • Vele V. Tešević
  • Milka B. Jadranin
  • Ljubodrag V. Vujisić
  • Srećko B. Ćurčić
  • Boris M. Mandić
  • Tatjana L. Sekulić
  • Bojan M. Mitić
Article

Abstract

Nine compounds were detected in three different millipede species: Polydesmus complanatus (L.), Brachydesmus (Stylobrachydesmus) avalae Ćurčić & Makarov, and Brachydesmus (Stylobrachydesmus) dadayi Verhoeff. Benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, benzoylnitrile, benzyl methyl ketone, benzoic acid, benzyl ethyl ketone, mandelonitrile, and mandelonitrile benzoate were identified by GC-FID and GC-MS analyses. Hydrogen cyanide was detected qualitatively by the picric acid test. Benzyl ethyl ketone, benzyl methyl ketone, and benzyl alcohol were detected for the first time in polydesmidan millipedes. Benzoylnitrile was the major component in all three hexane extracts. These compounds are suspected to be active in the defensive secretions of these millipede species.

Key Words

Benzaldehyde Benzoylnitrile Benzyl alcohol Benzyl ethyl ketone Benzyl methyl ketone Brachydesmus Diplopoda Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) Hydrogen cyanide Polydesmus 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Steven Seybold (USA) and two anonymous reviewers, whose comments greatly improved the manuscript. This study was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of Serbia (Grants Nos. 143053 and 142053).

Supplementary material

10886_2010_9847_MOESM1_ESM.doc (36 kb)
Supplemental Data (DOC 36 kb)
10886_2010_9847_Fig2_ESM.gif (70 kb)
Supplemental Data Fig. 1

Identification of Compound 3. (a) EI MS spectrum of Compound 3 with proposed fragmentation, (b) EI MS spectrum of Compound 3 and library spectrum oriented from head to tail, (c) EI MS library spectrum from Wiley 07 NIST 05 database, with chemical structures. (GIF 69 kb)

10886_2010_9847_MOESM2_ESM.tif (252 kb)
High Resolution Image (TIFF 251 kb)
10886_2010_9847_Fig3_ESM.gif (79 kb)
Supplemental Data Fig. 2

Identification of Compound 7. (a) EI MS spectrum of Compound 7 with proposed fragmentation, (b) EI MS spectrum of Compound 7 and library spectrum oriented from head to tail, (c) EI MS library spectrum from Wiley 07 NIST 05 database, with chemical structures. (GIF 78 kb)

10886_2010_9847_MOESM3_ESM.tif (280 kb)
High Resolution Image (TIFF 279 kb)
10886_2010_9847_MOESM4_ESM.doc (55 kb)
Supplemental Data Table 1 Chemical composition of the defensive secretions in three polydesmid millipede species analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS with data from the literature (DOC 55 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Slobodan E. Makarov
    • 1
  • Božidar P. M. Ćurčić
    • 1
  • Vele V. Tešević
    • 2
  • Milka B. Jadranin
    • 3
  • Ljubodrag V. Vujisić
    • 3
  • Srećko B. Ćurčić
    • 1
  • Boris M. Mandić
    • 2
  • Tatjana L. Sekulić
    • 1
  • Bojan M. Mitić
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Zoology, Faculty of BiologyUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.Faculty of ChemistryUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  3. 3.Institute of Chemistry, Technology and MetallurgyBelgradeSerbia

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