Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 349–354 | Cite as

Sex Pheromone of the Bud Borer Epinotia aporema: Chemical Identification and Male Behavioral Response

  • Paula Altesor
  • Carmen Rossini
  • Paulo H.G. Zarbin
  • Andrés González


Epinotia aporema (Walsingham) is a Neotropical pest of legumes in southern South America. Its importance has increased during the last decade owing to the significant growth of soybean production in the region. Monitoring of E. aporema is difficult due to the cryptic behavior of the larvae, and hence, chemical control is carried out preventively. We analyzed the female-produced sex pheromone so as to develop monitoring traps and explore pheromone-based control methods. We analyzed pheromone gland extracts by combined chromatographic, spectrometric, and electrophysiological methods. Based on the comparison of retention indices, mass spectra, and electroantennogram (EAD) activity of the insect-produced compounds with those of synthetic standards, we identified two EAD-active compounds, (Z,Z)-7,9-dodecadienol and (Z,Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate (15:1 ratio), as sex pheromone components of E. aporema. We also studied the behavior of males in wind tunnel tests using virgin females and different combinations of synthetic standards (15:1, 1:1, and 1:0 alcohol/acetate) as stimuli. A significantly greater percentage of males reached the chemical source with the 15:1 synthetic mixture than with any of the other treatments, indicating that these two compounds are pheromone components.


Sex pheromones Epinotia aporema Tortricidae Wind tunnel Lepidoptera 



Financial support was provided by the Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria of Uruguay, CONICYT, the Lindbergh Foundation, and IFS-OPCW to AG, and CNPq to PHG. The authors also wish to thank Tetsu Ando and Christer Löfstedt who kindly provided the pheromone standards and Jan Bergmann for the useful comments on the manuscript.

Supplementary material

10886_2009_9605_MOESM1_ESM.doc (82 kb)
Supplementary Figure S1 (DOC 82.5 KB)


  1. Adams, R. P. 2007. Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream, IL.Google Scholar
  2. Alzugaray, R., and Ribeiro, A. 2000. Insectos en pasturas, pp. 13–30, in S. Zerbino, and A. Ribeiro (eds.). INIA Serie Técnica: Manejo de Plagas en Pasturas y CultivosINIA, Montevideo.Google Scholar
  3. Alzugaray, R., Zerbino, M. S., Stewart, S., Ribeiro, A., and Eilenberg, J. 1999. Epizootiology of Entomophthoralean fungi. Use of Zoophthora radicans (Brefeld) Batko (Zygomicotina: Entomophthorales) for the biocontrol of Epinotia aporema (Wals.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Uruguay. Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 58:307–311.Google Scholar
  4. Ando, T., Inomata, S.-I., and Yamamoto, M. 2004. Lepidopteran sex pheromones. Top. Curr. Chem. 239:51–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bentancourt, C., and Scatoni, I. 1995. Lepidópteros de importancia económica. Reconocimiento, biología y daños de las plagas agrícolas y forestales. Agropecuaria Hemiferio Sur SRL, Montevideo, Uruguay.Google Scholar
  6. Bentancourt, C., and Scatoni, I. 2006. Lepidópteros de importancia económica. Reconocimiento, biología y daños de las plagas agrícolas y forestales. Agropecuaria Hemiferio Sur SRL, Montevideo, Uruguay.Google Scholar
  7. Biezanko, C., Ruffinelli, A., and Carbonell, C. 1957. Lepidoptera del Uruguay. Lista anotada de especies, Montevideo, Uruguay.Google Scholar
  8. CONAB. 2007. Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento. Ministerio de Agricultura, Pecuaria e Absteciemento de Brasil.
  9. El-Sayed, A. M. 2008. The Pherobase: Database of Insect Pheromones and Semiochemicals.
  10. Ferrari, J. 2007. Anuario Estadístico Agropecuario 2007. Dirección de Estadísticas Agropecuarias. Ministerio de Ganadería, Agricultura y Pesca, Uruguay.
  11. Iede, E. T., and Foerster, L. A. 1982. The biology of Epinotia aporema Lepidoptera Tortricidae on soybean. An. Soc. Entomol. Bras. 11:13–22.Google Scholar
  12. Morey, C. 1972. Biología y morfología larval de Epinotia aporema (Wals.) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae). Montevideo, Uruguay.Google Scholar
  13. Pereyra, P. C., and Sanchez, N. E. 1998. Effects of different host-plant species on growth, development and feeding of bud borer, Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in La Plata, Argentina. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 71:269–275.Google Scholar
  14. Priesner, E., Reed, D. W., Underhill, E. W., and Bogenschuetz, H. 1989. (Z,Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate, sex pheromone of Epinotia tedella Clerck Lepidoptera Tortricidae. J. Chem. Ecol. 15:2457–2464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Sanchez, N. E., Pereyra, P. C., and Gentile, M. V. 1997. Population parameters of Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on soybean. Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 56:151–153.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paula Altesor
    • 1
  • Carmen Rossini
    • 1
  • Paulo H.G. Zarbin
    • 2
  • Andrés González
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratorio de Ecología Química, Facultad de QuímicaUniversidad de la RepúblicaMontevideoUruguay
  2. 2.Laboratorio de Semioquímicos, Departamento de QuímicaUniversidade Federal do ParanáCuritibaBrazil

Personalised recommendations