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Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 349–354 | Cite as

Sex Pheromone of the Bud Borer Epinotia aporema: Chemical Identification and Male Behavioral Response

  • Paula Altesor
  • Carmen Rossini
  • Paulo H.G. Zarbin
  • Andrés González
Article
  • 110 Downloads

Abstract

Epinotia aporema (Walsingham) is a Neotropical pest of legumes in southern South America. Its importance has increased during the last decade owing to the significant growth of soybean production in the region. Monitoring of E. aporema is difficult due to the cryptic behavior of the larvae, and hence, chemical control is carried out preventively. We analyzed the female-produced sex pheromone so as to develop monitoring traps and explore pheromone-based control methods. We analyzed pheromone gland extracts by combined chromatographic, spectrometric, and electrophysiological methods. Based on the comparison of retention indices, mass spectra, and electroantennogram (EAD) activity of the insect-produced compounds with those of synthetic standards, we identified two EAD-active compounds, (Z,Z)-7,9-dodecadienol and (Z,Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate (15:1 ratio), as sex pheromone components of E. aporema. We also studied the behavior of males in wind tunnel tests using virgin females and different combinations of synthetic standards (15:1, 1:1, and 1:0 alcohol/acetate) as stimuli. A significantly greater percentage of males reached the chemical source with the 15:1 synthetic mixture than with any of the other treatments, indicating that these two compounds are pheromone components.

Keywords

Sex pheromones Epinotia aporema Tortricidae Wind tunnel Lepidoptera 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial support was provided by the Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria of Uruguay, CONICYT, the Lindbergh Foundation, and IFS-OPCW to AG, and CNPq to PHG. The authors also wish to thank Tetsu Ando and Christer Löfstedt who kindly provided the pheromone standards and Jan Bergmann for the useful comments on the manuscript.

Supplementary material

10886_2009_9605_MOESM1_ESM.doc (82 kb)
Supplementary Figure S1 (DOC 82.5 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paula Altesor
    • 1
  • Carmen Rossini
    • 1
  • Paulo H.G. Zarbin
    • 2
  • Andrés González
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratorio de Ecología Química, Facultad de QuímicaUniversidad de la RepúblicaMontevideoUruguay
  2. 2.Laboratorio de Semioquímicos, Departamento de QuímicaUniversidade Federal do ParanáCuritibaBrazil

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