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Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 8–19 | Cite as

Response of the Egg Parasitoids Trissolcus basalis and Telenomus podisi to Compounds from Defensive Secretions of Stink Bugs

  • Raúl A. Laumann
  • Michely F. S. Aquino
  • Maria C. B. Moraes
  • Martín Pareja
  • Miguel Borges
Article

Abstract

We tested the hypotheses that host-searching behavior of the egg parasitoids Telenomus podisi and Trissolcus basalis may be differentially influenced by the different blends of volatiles released from the metathoracic glands of adult stink bug host species. We further studied whether such a differential response is due to different individual components of these glands and whether these responses reflect host preferences. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays were carried out with crude extracts of metathoracic glands of five different host species of neotropical stink bugs. Additionally, we tested the parasitoids’ responses to synthetic standards of individual compounds identified in these stink bug glands. Results showed that females of T. basalis and T. podisi responded differentially to crude gland extracts of the different species of host stink bugs and to the compounds tested. The parasitoid T. basalis showed a positive taxic behavior to Nezara viridula methathoracxic gland extracts of a host species preferred in the field, i.e., N. viridula. Furthermore, T. basalis responded positively to 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-decenal, two components of N. viridula glandular secretion. Higher residence time, reduced linear velocity, and higher tortuosity in the arm of the olfactometer supplied with 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal showed that this compound modifies the kinetics of some traits of T. basalis walking pattern and suggests that it might stimulate the searching behavior of this parasitoid. The parasitoid T. podisi was attracted to crude gland extracts of the preferred host (Euschistus heros) and also to 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal. Additionally, this parasitoid responded positively to (E)-2-hexenal and to the hydrocarbon tridecane, both of which are defensive compounds released from the metathoracic glands by several stink bugs. The results indicate some degree of specialization in the response of two generalist parasitoid species toward defensive secretions of stink bugs.

Keywords

Defensive compounds Host searching Host–parasitoid interactions Kairomones Host preference Hymenoptera Sceolionidae Hemiptera Pentatomidae 

Notes

Acknowledgment

We thank H. Santos and D. Tiburcio, for helping with field collection and laboratory rearing of the insects used. We are grateful to Monika Hilker for assistance with editorial corrections and suggestions that helped us improve the work, and to two anonymous reviewers for comments on the first version of this work. This work received financial support from the Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), Distrito Federal Research Foundation (FAPDF), Catholic University (scientific initiation studentship to MFSA), and EMBRAPA.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raúl A. Laumann
    • 1
  • Michely F. S. Aquino
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maria C. B. Moraes
    • 1
  • Martín Pareja
    • 1
    • 3
  • Miguel Borges
    • 1
  1. 1.Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e BiotecnologiaBrasíliaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of BiologyCatholic University of BrasíliaBrasíliaBrazil
  3. 3.Department of EcologySwedish University of Agricultural Sciences—SLUUppsalaSweden

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