Sex Pheromone of the Citrus Flower Moth Prays nephelomima: Pheromone Identification, Field Trapping Trials, and Phenology
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Analysis of sex pheromone gland extract of the citrus flower moth, Prays nephelomima (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) by coupled gas chromatography–electroantennogram detection, revealed one electrophysiologically active compound. Structural analysis using gas chromatography, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and dimethyldisulfide derivatization identified this as the monounsaturated aldehyde (Z)-7-tetradecenal. Field trials in commercial citrus orchards on the North Island of New Zealand showed that (Z)-7-tetradecenal was highly attractive to male P. nephelomima. Phenology data, collected over 19 months in three commercial orchards, from traps baited with the sex pheromone at a lure loading of 300 μg on a red rubber septum, indicated that male moths may be present throughout the year, with numbers peaking in late summer and autumn.
Key WordsCitrus flower moth Prays nephelomima Yponomeutidae Lepidoptera (Z)-7-tetradecenal GC-EAD GC-MS DMDS derivatization trapping trials phenology
We thank the MAF Sustainable Farming Fund and New Zealand Citrus Growers Incorporated for funding this work. Additional funding was provided by the New Zealand Foundation for Research, Science and Technology. We also thank Diana Edwards (Clevedon), Amanda Little, Kira Anderson, Kathryn Wilson, Kerry Gibbs, and Andrew Harty (Kerifresh Group, Kerikeri), and Lynda Maskell, John Chapman, and Ryan Duffy (Houhora) for trial sites, maintaining pheromone traps, and collecting sticky bases. Dr. Robert Hoare from Landcare Research confirmed the initial moth identifications, and David Seldon assisted with counting moths and data collation.
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