Advertisement

Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 31, Issue 6, pp 1255–1267 | Cite as

Expression of Constitutive and Inducible Chemical Defenses in Native and Invasive Populations of Alliaria petiolata

  • Don Cipollini
  • Jeanne Mbagwu
  • Kathryn Barto
  • Carl Hillstrom
  • Stephanie Enright
Article

Abstract

The Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA) hypothesis posits that invasive plants in introduced habitats with reduced herbivore pressure will evolve reduced levels of costly resistance traits. In light of this hypothesis, we examined the constitutive and inducible expression of five chemical defense traits in Alliaria petiolata from four invasive North American and seven native European populations. When grown under common conditions, significant variation among populations within continents was found for trypsin inhibitors and peroxidase activity, and glucosinolates and trypsin inhibitors were significantly jasmonate-inducible across populations. Across populations, constitutive levels of glucosinolates and trypsin inhibitors were negatively correlated with their degree of induction, with three North American populations tending to have lower constitutive levels and higher inducibility of glucosinolates than the seven European populations. Alliarinoside and isovitexin 6″-O-β-d-glucopyranoside levels were both higher in North American plants than in European plants, but levels of these compounds were generally increased by jasmonate in European plants and decreased by the same treatment in North American plants. Aside from the tendency for invasive populations to have reduced constitutive glucosinolate levels coupled with increased inducibility, little support for the predictions of EICA was evident in the chemical defenses that we studied.

Key Words

Alliaria petiolata defense proteins evolution glycosides herbivory induced defenses invasive plants jasmonic acid 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Paul Hatcher, Adrian Goodman, and Nicole van Dam for seeds of garlic mustard. We thank Meena Haribal for advice on Mass Spectrometry and HPLC analyses, and Wayne Carmichael and Jerry Servaites for access to equipment and assistance with our procedures. Comments by Oliver Bossdorf and two anonymous reviewers substantially improved this manuscript. We thank Moucon Yuan for help with identification of compounds by mass spectrometry. This project received financial support from Wright State University, the Ohio Board of Regents, and the NSF-UMEB program.

References

  1. Bais, H. P., Walker, F. R., Stermitz, F. R., Hufbaker, R. A., Vivanco, J. M. 2002Isomeric-dependent phytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of (±)-catechin. A rhizosecreted racemic mixture from spotted knapweedPlant Physiol.12811731179Google Scholar
  2. Blossey, B., NÖtzold, R. 1995Evolution of increased competitive ability in invasive non-indigenous plants: a hypothesisJ. Ecol.83887889Google Scholar
  3. Blossey, B., Nuzzo, V., Hinz, H., Gerber, E. 2001Developing biocontrol of Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara and Grande (garlic mustard)Nat. Areas J.21357367Google Scholar
  4. Bossdorf, O., Schroder, S., Prati, D., Auge, H. 2004aPalatability and tolerance to simulated herbivory in native and introduced populations of Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae)Am. J. Bot.91856862Google Scholar
  5. Bossdorf, O., Prati, D., Auge, H., Schmid, B. 2004bReduced competitive ability in an invasive plantEcol. Lett.7346353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Byers, D. L., Quinn, J. A. 1998Demographic variation in Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae) in four contrasting habitatsJ. Torrey Bot. Soc.125138149Google Scholar
  7. Campa, A. 1991Biological roles of plant peroxidases: known and potential functionEverse, J.Everse, K. E.Grisham, M. B. eds. Peroxidases in Chemistry and Biology, Vol. IICRC PressBoca Raton, FL2550Google Scholar
  8. Cavers, P. B., Heagy, M. I., Kokron, R. F. 1979The biology of Canadian weeds. 35. Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara and GrandeCan. J. Plant Sci.59217229Google Scholar
  9. Cipollini, D. F. 2002aDoes competition magnify the fitness costs of induced responses in Arabidopsis thaliana? A manipulative approach.Oecologia131514520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cipollini, D. F. 2002bVariation in the expression of chemical defenses in Alliaria petiolata in the field and common gardenAm. J. Bot.8914221430Google Scholar
  11. Cipollini, D. F., Bergelson, J. 2000Environmental and developmental regulation of trypsin inhibitor activity in Brassica napusJ. Chem. Ecol.2614111422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cipollini, D. F., Purrington, C. B., Bergelson, J. 2003aCosts of induced responses in plantsBasic Appl. Ecol.47989Google Scholar
  13. Cipollini, D. F., Busch, J., Simms, E., Stowe, K., Bergelson, J. 2003bGenetic variation and relationships of constitutive and induced trypsin inhibitor activity, glucosinolate content, and biological resistance in Brassica rapaJ. Chem. Ecol.29285302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cipollini, D. F., Enright, S., Traw, B., Bergelson, J. 2004Salicylic acid inhibits jasmonic acid-induced resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana to Spodoptera exiguaMol. Ecol.1316431653CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Haribal, M., Renwick, J. A. A. 2001Seasonal and populational variation in flavonoid and alliarinoside from Alliaria petiolataJ. Chem. Ecol.2716031612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Koricheva, J., NykÄnen, H., Gianoli, E. 2004Meta-analysis of trade-offs among plant antiherbivore defenses: are plants jacks-of-all-trades, masters of all?Am. Nat.1636475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mauricio, R., Rausher, M. D. 1997Experimental manipulation of putative selective agents provides evidence for the role of natural enemies in the evolution of plant defenseEvolution5114351444Google Scholar
  18. McCarthy, B. C., Hanson, S. L. 1998An assessment of the allelopathic potential of the invasive weed Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae)Castanea636873Google Scholar
  19. Meekins, J. F., McCarthy, B. C. 2000Response of the biennial forest herb Alliaria petiolata to variation in population density, nutrient addition and light availabilityJ. Ecol.88447463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Meyer, G. A., Weber, E., Egan, T., and Clare, R. 2001. Do introduced plants reduce their allocation to defense? An experimental test with goldenrod (Solidago gigantea). Ecol. Soc. Am. 86th Annu. Meeting Abstr., pp. 318–319.Google Scholar
  21. Nuzzo, V. A. 2000. Element stewardship abstract for Alliaria petiolata (Alliaria officinalis), garlic mustard. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA.Google Scholar
  22. Renwick, J. A. A., Zhang, W., Haribal, M., Attygalle, A. B., Lopez, K. D. 2001Dual chemical barriers protect a plant against different larval stages of an insectJ. Chem. Ecol.2715751583CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Roberts, K. J., Anderson, R. C. 2001Effect of garlic mustard [Alliaria petiolata (Bieb. Cavara & Grande)] extracts on plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungiAm. Midl. Nat.146146152Google Scholar
  24. Siemann, E., Rogers, W. E. 2001Genetic differences in growth of an invasive tree speciesEcol. Lett.4514518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Siemens, D. H., Mitchell-Olds, T. 1998Evolution of pest defenses in Brassica plants: tests of theoryEcology79632646Google Scholar
  26. Thaler, J. S., Stout, M. J., Karban, R., Duffey, S. S. 1996Exogenous jasmonates simulate insect wounding in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) in the laboratory and fieldJ. Chem. Ecol.2217671781Google Scholar
  27. Traw, M. B., Kim, J., Enright, S., Cipollini, D. F., Bergelson, J. 2003Negative cross-talk between salicylate and jasmonate-mediated pathways in the Wassilewskija ecotype of Arabidopsis thalianaMol. Ecol.1211251135CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kleunen, M., Schmid, B. 2003No evidence for an evolutionary increased competitive ability in an invasive plantEcology8428162823Google Scholar
  29. Willis, A. J., Thomas, M. B., Lawton, J. H. 1999Is the increased vigor of invasive weeds explained by a trade-off between growth and herbivore resistance?Oecologia120632640CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Don Cipollini
    • 1
  • Jeanne Mbagwu
    • 1
  • Kathryn Barto
    • 1
  • Carl Hillstrom
    • 1
  • Stephanie Enright
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesWright State UniversityDaytonUSA

Personalised recommendations