Traveling Waves in Epidemic Models: Non-monotone Diffusive Systems with Non-monotone Incidence Rates
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We study the existence and nonexistence of traveling waves of diffusive epidemic models with general incidence rates. The model systems are non-monotone because of the intrinsic predator–prey interaction between the susceptible and infective compartments in epidemic systems. Moreover, the incidence rate may not be monotone in the infected population because social behaviors and collective activities may change in response to the prevalence of disease. To find positive traveling solutions of the non-monotone system with a non-monotone incidence function, we will construct a suitable convex set in a weighted function space, and then apply Schauder fixed point theorem. It turns out that the basic reproduction number of the corresponding ordinary differential equations plays an important role in the existence theory of traveling waves. Moreover, the critical wave speed can be explicitly obtained in terms of the diffusion coefficient, recovery rate and death rate for the infected group, and partial derivative of incidence function at the disease-free equilibrium. Finally, we prove that the positive traveling wave solution does not exist if the basic reproduction number is no more than one, or the wave speed is less than the critical value.
KeywordsTraveling waves Diffusive epidemic models Schauder fixed point theorem Non-monotonicity
Mathematics Subject Classification92D30 35K57 34B40
H. Shu was partially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11601392, 11571257), Pujiang Talent Program of Shanghai (No. 16PJ1409100), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities. J. Wu was partially supported by the Canada Research Chairs Program and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.