Influence of High and Low Autonomy-Supportive Climates on Physical Activity in Children with and without Developmental Disability
The aim of this study was to compare the influence of two different instructional climates on the accumulation of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during a fully-inclusive adapted recreational physical activity program. A total of 32 children (18 typically-developing (TD), and 14 with developmental disabilities (DD) ranging in ages from 5 to 9 years, participated in six, 60-min adapted recreational sessions. Of those six sessions, three incorporated an autonomy-supportive climate (high autonomy), and three incorporated direct instruction (low autonomy). MVPA was measured using accelerometers. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to determine significant differences in MVPA between group (TD/DD), climate (autonomy/direct), and a group x climate interaction. Significant group and climate main effects were observed (p = 0.002 and 0.014, respectively). However, there was not a significant group x climate interaction (p = 0.313). These results suggest that although the group of children with disabilities spent less time in MVPA compared to their typically-developing peers, all participants spent more time in MVPA for the autonomy-supportive climate compared to the low-autonomous climate. This study is the first to quantitatively assess the efficacy of a fully-inclusive autonomy-supportive climate on physical activity levels in children with and without developmental disabilities.
KeywordsActigraph Adapted recreation Healthy Children Inclusion Instructional Climate
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Ames, C. (1992). Achievement goals, motivational climate, and motivational processes. In G. C. Roberts (Ed.), Motivation in sport and exercise (pp. 161–176). Champaign: Human Kinetics Publishers.Google Scholar
- Cipani, E. (2018). Functional behavioral assessment, diagnosis, and treatment: A complete system for education and mental health settings (3rd ed.). New York: Springer Publishing.Google Scholar
- Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Kwan, M. Y., Cairney, J., Hay, J. A., & Faught, B. E. (2013). Understanding physical activity and motivations for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: An investigation using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(11), 3691–3698.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Michael, J. (2007). Motivating operations. In J. O. Cooper, T. E. Heron, & W. L. Heward (Eds.), Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed., pp. 374–391). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
- Morgan, G. A., MacTurk, R. H., & Hrncir, E. J. (1995). Mastery Motivation: Overview, Definitions. Mastery Motivation: Origins, Conceptualizations, and Applications, 12, 1.Google Scholar
- National Autism Center (NAC). (2013). National standards report. Randolph: National Autism Centre.Google Scholar
- Pan, C.-Y., Tsai, C.-L., Chu, C.-H., & Hsieh, K.-W. (2011). Physical activity and self-determined motivation of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders in inclusive physical education. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(2).Google Scholar
- Parish, L. E., & Rudisill, M. E. (2014). Engaging young children in physical activity: implementing effective theoretically-driven and research-based interventions. In N. C. Valentini & J. R. Krebs (Eds.), Intervention and assessment: Designing studies for children and adolescent (pp. 37–49). Port Alegre: Artmed editora.Google Scholar
- Ross, S. M., Bogart, K. R., Logan, S. W., Case, L., Fine, J., & Thompson, H. (2016). Physical activity participation of disabled children: A systematic review of conceptual and methodological approaches in health research. Frontiers in Public Health, 4, 187. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2016.00187Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2000). Healthy people 2020: Physical activity and fitness. Retrieved from: www.health.gov/healthypeople/Document/HTML/Volume2/22Physical.htm.