Factors Associated with Perceived Cognitive Problems in Children and Adolescents with Congenital Heart Disease

  • Christine A. Limbers
  • Kara Emery
  • Karen Uzark


The objective of the present study was to assess demographic and disease-specific factors associated with perceived cognitive problems in children and adolescents with heart disease. 246 children with congenital heart disease ages 8–18 years and their parents completed the Cognitive Problems Scale of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Cardiac Module. The 5-item Cognitive Problems Scale assesses school-related cognitive problems including attention and memory from the perspective of the child and parent. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted with demographic variables and disease-specific factors entered as independent variables and perceived cognitive problems as the dependent variable. Socioeconomic status (SES) and cardiac disease severity were significantly associated with parent proxy-reported cognitive problems (p < .05). None of the demographic or disease-specific variables were significantly associated with child self-reported cognitive problems. In conclusion, our data suggest that assessment of perceived cognitive problems in children and adolescents with greater disease severity and from lower SES homes may facilitate early identification of children who need formal evaluation and interventions to address cognitive impairments.


Cognitive problems Congenital heart disease Pediatric heart disease 


Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine A. Limbers
    • 1
  • Kara Emery
    • 1
  • Karen Uzark
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychology and NeuroscienceBaylor UniversityWacoUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric Cardiology, C.S. Mott Children’s HospitalUniversity of Michigan Medical CenterAnn ArborUSA

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