Advertisement

Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing

, Volume 20, Issue 6, pp 431–436 | Cite as

Age and Gender Do Not Influence the Ability to Detect Respiration by Photoplethysmography

  • Lena Nilsson
  • Tomas Goscinski
  • Anders Johansson
  • Lars-Göran Lindberg
  • Sigga Kalman
Article

Abstract

Objective

The non-invasive technique photopl- ethysmography (PPG) can detect changes in blood volume and perfusion in a tissue. Respiration causes variations in the peripheral circulation, making it possible to monitor breaths using an optical sensor attached to the skin. The respiratory-synchronous part of the PPG signal (PPGr) has been used to monitor respiration during anaesthesia, and in postoperative and neonatal care. Studies addressing possible differences in PPGr signal characteristics depending on gender or age are lacking.

Methods

We studied three groups of 16 healthy subjects each during normal breathing; young males, old males and young females, and calculated the concordance between PPGr, derived from a reflection mode PPG sensor on the forearm, and a reference CO2 signal. The concordance was quantified by using a squared coherence analysis. Time delay between the two signals was calculated. In this process, we compared three different methods for calculating time delay.

Results

Coherence values ≥0.92 were seen for all three groups without any significant differences depending on age or gender (p = 0.67). Comparison between the three different methods for calculating time delay showed a correlation r = 0.93.

Conclusions

These results demonstrate clinically important information implying the possibility to register qualitative PPGr signals for respiration monitoring, regardless of age and gender.

Key words

photoplethysmography monitoring respiration gender age 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Krieger B, Feinerman D, Zaron A, Bizousky F, 1986; Continuous non-invasive monitoring of respiratory rate in critically ill patients Chest 90: 632–634CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Folke M, Cernerud L, Ekström M, Hök B, 2003; Critical review of non-invasive respiratory monitoring in medical care Med Biol Eng Comput 41: 377–383CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Robins D, 1996; Principles & guidelines for respiratory monitoring on the general care floor. The Consortium on Respiratory Monitoring on the General Care Floor J Clin Monit 12: 411–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Challoner AVJ, 1979; Photoelectric plethysmography for estimating cutaneous blood flow In Rolfe P, (eds.), Non-invasive physiological measurement Academic Press LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tremper K K, Barker SJ, 1989; Pulse oximetry Anesthesiology 70: 98–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Johansson A, Öberg PÅ, Sedin G, 1999; Monitoring of heart and respiratory rates in newborn infants using a new photoplethysmographic technique J Clin Monit 15: 461–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nilsson L, Johansson A, Kalman S, 2000; Monitoring of respiratory rate in postoperative care using a new photoplethysmographic technique J Clin Monit 16: 309–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nilsson L, Johansson A, Kalman S, 2005; Respiration can be monitored by photoplethysmography with high sensitivity and specificity regardless of anaesthesia and ventilatory mode Acta Anaest Scand 49: 1157–1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Olsson E, Ugnell H, Öberg PÅ, Sedin G, 2000; Photoplethysmography for simultaneous recording of heart and respiratory rates in newborn infants Acta Paediatr 89: 853–861CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yoon G, Lee JY, Jeon KJ, Park KK, Kim HS, 2005; Development of a compact home health monitor for telemedicine Telemed JE Health 11: 660–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sonesson B, Hansen F, Stale H, Länne T, 1993; Compliance and diameter in the human abdominal aorta – The influence of age and sex Eur J Vasc Surg 7: 690–697CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Johansson A, Strömberg T, 2000; Influence of tidal volume and thoraco-abdominal separation on the respiratory induced variation of the photoplethysmogram J Clin Monit 16: 575–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jönsson B, Laurent C, Skau T, Lindberg L-G, 2005; A new probe for ankle systolic pressure measurement using photoplethysmography (PPG) Ann Biomed Eng 33: 232–339CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sandberg M, Zhang Q, Styf J, Gerdle B, Lindberg L-G, 2005; Non-invasive monitoring of muscle blood perfusion by photoplethysmography. Evaluation of a new application Acta Physiol Scand 183: 335–343CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bernardi L, Radaelli A, Solda PL, Coats AJS, Reeder M, Calciati A, Garrard CS, Sleight P, 1996; Autonomic control of skin microvessels: assessment by power spectrum of photoplethysmographic waves Clin Sci 90: 345–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vegfors M, Ugnell H, Hök B, öberg PÅ, Lennmarken C, 1993; Experimental evaluation of two new sensors for respiratory rate monitoring Physiol Meas 14: 171–181CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Johansson A, Hök B, 2004; Sensors for respiratory monitoring in sensors applications In öberg PÅ, Togawa T, Spelman F (eds.), Sensors in medicine and health care Wiley-VCH Verlag WienheimGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gensini GF, Corradi F, 2000; Hypertension as a function of age Ital Heart J 1: 23–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bjarnegard N, Rydén Ahlgren A, Sandgren T, Sonesson, Lanne T, 2003; Age affects proximal brachial artery stiffness; differential behavior within the length of the brachial artery? Ultrasound Med Biol 29: 1115–1121CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nilsson L, Johansson A, Kalman S, 2003; Macrocirculation is not the sole determinant of the respiratory induced variations in the reflection mode photoplethysmographic signal Physiol Meas 24: 925–937CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nilsson L, Johansson A, Kalman S, 2003; Respiratory variations in the reflection mode photoplethysmographic signal. Relations to peripheral venous pressure Med Biol Eng Comput 41: 249–254CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lena Nilsson
    • 1
  • Tomas Goscinski
    • 1
  • Anders Johansson
    • 2
  • Lars-Göran Lindberg
    • 2
  • Sigga Kalman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive CareLinköping University HospitalLinköpingSweden
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical EngineeringLinköping UniversityLinköpingSweden

Personalised recommendations