Punicalagin is the most popular ellagitannin found in pomegranate husk and is well known to reduce the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The present work describes a novel method for the preparation of nanoparticles of Punicalagin using pomegranate (Punica granatum) since the use of Punicalagin in bulk form is associated with many problems. In this study, nanoparticles of Punicalagin were synthesized, characterized using various techniques, and further evaluated for their antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiproliferative potential using HepG2 cancer cells. DLS analysis revealed that the average size of nanoparticles of Punicalagin was 87 nm, whereas SEM analysis confirmed spherical shaped nanoparticles with size ranging from 90 to 116 nm. HPLC studies confirmed the presence of Punicalagin in synthesized nanoparticles. The results also revealed that nanoparticles of Punicalagin were nearly four times more potent antioxidants than bulk and possessed an inhibition zone of about 13 mm. The response of antiproliferative assay showed that the nanoparticles of Punicalagin caused nearly 44% reduction while bulk form showed only a 15% reduction in cell viability of cancerous cells at 100 µg/mL. The study suggests a great potential for use of the herbal drug in nano form to treat cancer as compared to its bulk counterparts.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
M. Russo, C. Fanali, G. Tripodo, P. Dugo, R. Muleo, L. Dugo, L. De Gara, and L. Mondello (2018). Anal. Bioanal. Chem. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-018-0854-8.
S. Sreekumar, H. Sithul, P. Muraleedharan, J. M. Azeez, and S. Sreeharshan (2014). BioMed. Res. Int. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/686921.
M. Aviram and M. Rosenblat (2013). Rambam Maimonides Med. J. https://doi.org/10.5041/RMMJ.10113.
X. Lu: Incorporation of mushroom powder into cereal food products. Lincoln University (2018)
N. M. Badawi, M. H. Teaima, K. M. El-Say, D. A. Attia, M. A. El-Nabarawi, and M. M. Elmazar (2018). Int. J. Nanomed. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S154033.
V. Sanna, I. A. Siddiqui, M. Sechi, and H. Mukhtar (2013). Cancer Lett. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2012.11.037.
A. B. Shirode, D. J. Bharali, S. Nallanthighal, J. K. Coon, S. A. Mousa, and R. Reliene (2015). Int. J. Nanomed. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S65145.
I. A. Siddiqui, V. M. Adhami, D. J. Bharali, B. B. Hafeez, M. Asim, S. I. Khwaja, N. Ahmad, H. Cui, S. A. Mousa, and H. Mukhtar (2009). Cancer Res. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-3978.
M. Gera, R. Kumar, V. Jain, Adv. Sci. Eng. Med. (2015) https://doi.org/10.1166/asem.2015.1722
A. Mehra, R. Narang, V. Jain, and S. Nagpal (2020). Eur. J. Integr. Med. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eujim.2019.101014.
E.A. Alamineh, Am. J. Appl. Chem. (2018) https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajac.20180602.13
J. Lu, K. Ding, and Q. Yuan (2008). Chromatographia. https://doi.org/10.1365/s10337-008-0699-y.
P. M. Carvalho, M. R. Felício, N. C. Santos, S. Gonçalves, and M. M. Domingues (2018). Front. Chem. https://doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2018.00237.
D. N. de Assis, V. C. F. Mosqueira, J. M. C. Vilela, M. S. Andrade, and V. N. Cardoso (2008). Int. J. Pharm. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2007.08.002.
K. Jores, W. Mehnert, M. Drechsler, H. Bunjes, C. Johann, and K. Mäder (2004). J. Controlled Release. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2003.11.012.
G. Socrates: Infrared and Raman characteristic group frequencies: tables and charts. John Wiley & Sons, (2004)
R. Bhargava and I. W. Levin (2001). Anal. Chem. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac010380m.
M. Piecha, M. Sarakha, P. Trebše, and D. Kočar (2010). Environ. Chem. Lett. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-009-0207-0.
M. Balouiri, M. Sadiki, and S. K. Ibnsouda (2016). J. Pharm. Anal. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpha.2015.11.005.
S.S. Dahham, M.N. Ali, H. Tabassum, M. Khan, Am. Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci. (2010)
J. Jacob, P. Lakshmanapermalsamy, R. Illuri, D. Bhosle, G.K. Sangli, D. Mundkinajeddu, Pharmacognosy Res. (2018)
D.D. Sylvie, P.C. Anatole, B.P. Cabral, P.B. Veronique, Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. (2014) https://doi.org/10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B168
L. J. Lalitha, T. J. Sales, P. P. Clarance, P. Agastian, Y. Kim, A. Mahmoud, S. E. Mohamed, J. Tack, S. Na, and H. Kim (2020). J. King Saud Univ.-Sci. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2019.11.022.
M.F. Abu Bakar, N.E. Ahmad, M. Suleiman, A. Rahmat, A. Isha, Biomed Res Int. (2015) https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/916902
W. Sajjad, M. Sohail, B. Ali, A. Haq, G. Din, M. Hayat, I. Khan, M. Ahmad, S. Khan, Mycopath. (2015) https://doi.org/10.21786/bbrc/12.4/38
A. Aloqbi, U. Omar, M. Yousr, M. Grace, M. A. Lila, and N. Howell (2016). Nat. Sci. https://doi.org/10.4236/ns.2016.86028.
I. Khalil, W.A. Yehye, A.E. Etxeberria, A.A. Alhadi, S.M. Dezfooli, N.B.M. Julkapli, W.J. Basirun, A. Seyfoddin, Antioxidants. (2020)
N. Panth, B. Manandhar, K.R. Paudel, Phytother. Res. (2017)
B. Aribi, S. Zerizer, Z. Kabouche, I. Screpanti, and R. Palermo (2016). Food Agric. Immunol. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540105.2015.1104654.
T. Ghazanfari, M. Naseri, J. Shams, B. Rahmati, Food Agric. Immunol. (2013)
V.R. Lombardi, I. Carrera, R. Cacabelos, Evid.-Based Complement. Altern. Med. (2017)
J. Li, G. Wang, C. Hou, J. Li, Y. Luo, B. Li, Food Agric. Immunol. (2019)
This research is supported by Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, and is used by Ms. Akansha Mehra as a part of her Ph.D. program. We would also like to show our gratitude to Dr. Ashok K Chauhan, Founder President, Amity University for his continuous encouragement and support. We are thankful to our host institution also for providing us with resources and instrumentation to carry out this study.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Mehra, A., Chauhan, S., Jain, V.K. et al. Nanoparticles of Punicalagin Synthesized from Pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) with Enhanced Efficacy Against Human Hepatic Carcinoma Cells. J Clust Sci (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10876-021-01979-9
- Punicalagin nanoparticles (PCN)
- Punica granatum
- HepG2 cancer cells
- In-vitro antiproliferative activity