Journal of Cluster Science

, Volume 29, Issue 4, pp 577–583 | Cite as

Phytosynthesized Gold Nanoparticles-Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt–GNP) Formulation: A Novel Photo Stable Preparation Against Mosquito Larvae

  • Satish V. Patil
  • Chandrashekhar D. Patil
  • Chandrakant P. Narkhede
  • Rahul K. Suryawanshi
  • Sunil H. Koli
  • Laxmikant Shinde
  • Bhavana V. Mohite
Original Paper


It is well-known that the sunlight irradiation damages the spores and toxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which leads to loss of their insecticidal activity. This photodegradation problem is addressed in the present investigation by use of green phytosynthesized gold nanoparticles (GNP) as a photoprotectant. The efficiency of Bt with GNP before and after exposing to sunlight was evaluated against the larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles subpictus. The bioassay results focused that after sunlight irradiation the Bt significantly lose their activity for Ae. aegypti (23.13%) and An. subpictus (27.08%). Although the individual GNP showed very less activity against tested larvae, it was observed that in combination with Bt it significantly enhances activity and consequently reduced the LC50 of Bt–GNP. Similarly, even after irradiation of Bt–GNP formulation, the enhanced activity was found against Ae. aegypti (23.10%) and An. subpictus (27.24%). Henceforth in the case of Bt–GNP formulation, the GNP it was not only protecting the Bt from sunlight but enhances its larvicidal potential. The interactions between the GNP and Bt toxin which might be the main reason to protect the Bt from sunlight and can help to locate the Bt toxin at the target site.


Bacillus thuringiensis GNP Aedes aegypti Anopheles subpictus Photoprotection 



Authors are thankful to University Grant Commission and Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi for financial support to make research facility at Department of School of Life Sciences, under the UGC-SAP and DST-FIST program. Authors also acknowledge that this work is a small effort in vector control in response to inspiration created by Dr. AP Dash, N Valecha, Dr. Anvikar and A Kumar. Article “Malaria in India: challenges and opportunities”. J Biosci. 2008, 33(4):583–92.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Satish V. Patil
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chandrashekhar D. Patil
    • 1
    • 3
  • Chandrakant P. Narkhede
    • 1
  • Rahul K. Suryawanshi
    • 1
    • 4
  • Sunil H. Koli
    • 1
  • Laxmikant Shinde
    • 5
  • Bhavana V. Mohite
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Life SciencesNorth Maharashtra UniversityJalgaonIndia
  2. 2.North Maharashtra Microbial Culture Collection Centre (NMCC)North Maharashtra UniversityJalgaonIndia
  3. 3.Iceland Research Centre and Observatory of the EnvironmentUniversite de Perpignan UPVD CRIOBEPerpignanFrance
  4. 4.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual SciencesUniversity of IllinoisChicagoUSA
  5. 5.JES’ R. G. Bagdia Arts, S. B. Lakhotia Commerce, and R. Benzoji Science CollegeJalnaIndia

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