Journal of Cluster Science

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 119–132 | Cite as

Eco-friendly Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Their Cytotoxic Activity on Cancer Cells

  • Maheshkumar Prakash Patil
  • Daniel Ngabire
  • Hai Ha Pham Thi
  • Min-Do Kim
  • Gun-Do Kim
Original Paper


We herein present a simple, clean, eco-friendly and inexpensive method for green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using water extract from galls of Rhus chinensis. In this study, the reactions were conducted at 50 °C for 15 min using a magnetic stirrer and water as a solvent. AuNP characterization was performed using ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Element composition was detected via energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The possible presence of functional groups was analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The synthesized AuNPs exhibited a color change to wine red and a UV–vis peak at 532 nm. The sizes of AuNPs ranged from 20 to 40 nm, and they had oval and spherical shapes. The cytotoxic effects against MKN-28 (Adenocarcinoma), Hep3B (Heptocellular carcinoma), and MG-63 (Osteosarcoma) cells were evaluated using tetrazolium-based assay. The AuNPs induced cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, and morphology upon cell death was differentiated via fluorescent microscopy using 4,6-Diamidino-2-pheynylindole dihydrochloridehydrate staining which predicted apoptosis.


Cancer cells Galls Gold nanoparticles Green synthesis Rhus chinensis 



This study was supported by the research funds provided by the Pukyong National University in 2016.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maheshkumar Prakash Patil
    • 1
  • Daniel Ngabire
    • 1
  • Hai Ha Pham Thi
    • 1
  • Min-Do Kim
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gun-Do Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, College of Natural SciencesPukyong National UniversityBusanRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Convergence Medical Science, Graduate School of Inter-departmental ProgramsGyeongsang National UniversityJinjuRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Institute of Health ScienceGyeongsang National UniversityJinjuRepublic of Korea

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