Journal of Cluster Science

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 173–188 | Cite as

Synthesis, Characterization and Properties of Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns

  • K. Pramoda
  • Kota Moses
  • Mohd. Ikram
  • K. Vasu
  • A. Govindaraj
  • C. N. R. Rao
Original Paper


Single-walled nanohorns (SWNHs) have been prepared by sub-merged arc discharge of graphite electrodes in liquid nitrogen. The samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Nitrogen and boron doped SWNHs have been prepared by the sub-merged arc discharge method using melamine and elemental boron as precursors. Intensification of Raman D-band and stiffening of G-band has been observed in the doped samples. The electrical resistance of the SWNHs varies in opposite directions with nitrogen and boron doping. Functionalization of SWNHs through amidation has been carried out for solubilizing them in non-polar solvents. Water-soluble SWNHs have been produced by acid treatment and non-covalent functionalization with a coronene salt. SWNHs have been decorated with nanoparticles of Au, Ag and Pt. Interaction of electron donor (tetrathiafulvalene, TTF) and acceptor molecules (tetracyanoethylene, TCNE) with SWNHs has been investigated by Raman spectroscopy. Progressive softening and stiffening of Raman G-band has been observed respectively with increase in the concentration of TTF and TCNE.


Single-walled nanohorns Sub-merged arc discharge Dahlia-like nanohorns Charge-transfer Doped nanohorns 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Pramoda
    • 1
  • Kota Moses
    • 2
  • Mohd. Ikram
    • 1
  • K. Vasu
    • 1
  • A. Govindaraj
    • 1
    • 3
  • C. N. R. Rao
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.New Chemistry Unit, Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, CSIR Center of Excellence in Chemistry and International Centre for Materials ScienceJawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific ResearchBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Materials Research CenterIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia
  3. 3.Solid State and Structural Chemistry UnitIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia

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