CdO–ZnO nanocomposite was fabricated by a sol–gel pyrrolysis method based on the poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) polymeric network. The prepared nanocomposite was carefully characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray dispersive energy analysis, ICP-atomic emission spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and UV–visible spectroscopy. The structure, composition, and morphology of this composite depend on a number of aspects: the amounts of cadmium salt, zinc salt, and PVA in the initial solution, the solvent composition, and the pyrrolysis temperature. The obtained results showed that the nanocomposite had excellent linear nanoclusters created from nanograins. Each nanograin was made of a CdO core, completely covered by ZnO layers. Total diameter of each nanograin was 70–90 nm.