Table 3 Clinical presentation after COVID-19 infections and outcome of treatment strategy in 19 primary immunodeficient patients

From: Impact of SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic on Patients with Primary Immunodeficiency

Primary immunodeficiency categories ID PID diagnosis Age at COVID − 19 infection (m) Clinical signs and complications after COVID-19 Organ involvement Treatment strategy Medications Outcome
Combined immunodeficiencies Non-syndromic combined
immunodeficiencies
P1 SCID 10 Fever, cough, drop of oxygen saturation, respiratory distress Lung Hospitalized, NICU, requiring O2/NIV Azithromycin, IVIG Death
P2 SCID 20 Drop of oxygen saturation Lung Hospitalized, NICU Azithromycin, IVIG Death
P3 SCID 8 Fever, faintness, respiratory distress Lung Hospitalized, NICU Hydroxychloroquine, vancomycin, meropenem, IVIG Death
P4 Omenn syndrome 6 Fever, tachypnea, vomiting heart failure, seizure(once), cardiomegaly, a drop of oxygen saturation, respiratory distress Heart, Lung Hospitalized, NICU Isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, vitamin B6, cotrimoxazole Death
P5 CID 11 Respiratory distress, CD4 lymphopenia Lung Hospitalized, NICU Hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, IVIG Recovery
P6 STK4 144 Fever, loss of appetite, jaundice, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, cardiac and pulmonary arrest Gastrointestinal, lung, heart Hospitalized, requiring O2/NIV Acyclovir, ceftriaxone, vancomycin, dexamethasone Death
Syndromic combined immunodeficiencies P7 WAS 5 Fever, cough, respiratory distress Lung Hospitalized requiring O2/NIV Meropenem. cotrimoxazole, vancomycin, azithromycin, IVIG Recovery
P8 ATM 206 Fever, diarrhea Gastrointestinal Hospitalized Azithromycin, IVIG Recovery
P18 DNMT3B 130 Fever, cough, respiratory distress Lung Hospitalized requiring O2/NIV Azithromycin, IVIG Recovery
P19 DNMT3B 152 Fever, dry coughs, loss of appetite, vomiting, seizure, loss of awareness, respiratory distress Lung, gastrointestinal Hospitalized, ICU Azithromycin, ceftriaxone, vancomycin, IVIG Death
Predominantly antibody deficiencies P9 BTK 430 Dry cough, fever, sweating, abdominal pain, wheezing Gastrointestinal, lung Hospitalized, requiring O2/NIV Azithromycin, IVIG Recovery
P10 CVID 444 Fever, dry cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, muscular pain, chest pain Lung Hospitalized Hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, meropenem, IVIG Recovery
P11 HIgM 72 Fever, cough Lung Hospitalized, requiring O2/NIV Hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin Recovery
P12 SIgAD 96 Fever, mild clear rhinorrhea, mild suprasternal retraction, tachypnea, mild consolidation, productive cough, clear rhinorrhea Lung Hospitalized Meropenem, clindamycin, hydroxychloroquine, IVIG Recovery
Congenital defects of phagocytes P13 CGD 108 Fever, cough, headache Lung Hospitalized, requiring O2/NIV Cotrimoxazole, cefixime, meropenem, vancomycin Recovery
P14 CYBA 216 Respiratory distress, fatigue, dry cough, fever, headache, loss of sense of smell and hearing, eyelid edema, severe cardiac enlargement Lung, olfactory and auditory, cardiovascular system Hospitalized Cotrimoxazole, hydroxychloroquine Recovery
Diseases of immune dysregulation P15 RAB27A 106 Fever, vomiting, HM, liver involvement and pitting edema, respiratory distress Gastrointestinal Hospitalized, ICU Hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin Death
P16 CD70 372 Fatigue, dry cough, sore throat Lung Hospitalized, requiring O2/NIV Hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, IVIG Recovery
Autoinflammatory disorders P17 IL1RN 96 Fever, dry coughs, loss of appetite, vomiting, seizure, loss of awareness, respiratory distress Lung, gastrointestinal Hospitalized, ICU Hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin Death
  1. SCID severe combined immunodeficiency, IVIG intravenous immunoglobulin, m months, CID combined immunodeficiency, STK4 serine/threonine kinase 4 gene, WAS WASP actin nucleation promoting factor gene, ATM ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene, BTK Bruton’s tyrosine kinase gene, CYBA cytochrome B-245 alpha chain gene, RAB27A RAS-associated protein 27A gene, CD70 tumor necrosis factor ligand family cluster of differentiation 70 gene, IL1RN interleukin 1 receptor antagonist gene, CVID common variable immunodeficiency, HIgM hyper IgM syndrome, SIgAD selective immunoglobulin A deficiency, CGD chronic granulomatous disease, NIV non-invasive ventilation, NICU neonatal intensive care unit, ICU intensive care unit