The Association of Fetal Thymus Size with Subsequent T Cell Counts in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1


  1. 1.

    Berzins SP, Godfrey DI, Miller JF, Boyd RL. A central role for thymic emigrants in peripheral T cell homeostasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96(17):9787–91.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Montin D, Marolda A, L’icciardi F, DiCesare S, Ricotti E, Ferro F, et al. Immunophenotype anomalies predict the development of autoimmune cytopenia in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019;This issue.

  3. 3.

    Piliero LM, Sanford AN, McDonald-McGinn DM, Zackai EH, Sullivan KE. T-cell homeostasis in humans with thymic hypoplasia due to chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Blood. 2004;103(3):1020–5.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Cho JY, Min JY, Lee YH, McCrindle B, Hornberger LK, Yoo SJ. Diameter of the normal fetal thymus on ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007;29(6):634–8.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Bale PM, Sotelo-Avila C. Maldescent of the thymus: 34 necropsy and 10 surgical cases, including 7 thymuses medial to the mandible. Pediatr Pathol. 1993;13(2):181–90.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors gratefully acknowledge the patients.


KES is supported through the Wallace Chair of Pediatrics.

Author information




KES and DMM formulated the study. YD performed statistical analyses. ES assembled and analyzed thymic size assessments. TBC performed data extraction of T cell counts phenotypic variables. BC, JM, and EO performed thymic size analysis.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kathleen E. Sullivan.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic Supplementary Material


(DOCX 14.8 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Dou, Y., Schindewolf, E., Crowley, T.B. et al. The Association of Fetal Thymus Size with Subsequent T Cell Counts in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome. J Clin Immunol (2020).

Download citation